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President Barack Obama waves goodbye to departing guests from the South Portico of the White House following a dinner with Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) leaders, May 13, 2015.
10:00AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
11:00AM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Crown Prince Mohammed bin Nayef and Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman of Saudi Arabia; THE VICE PRESIDENT will also attend
12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room
5:30PM THE PRESIDENT welcomes leaders and delegations from the Gulf Cooperation Council
6:00PM THE PRESIDENT hosts leaders and delegations from the Gulf Cooperation Council for dinner; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
AbbVie Inc. (ABBV)
Invesco Canada Ltd. ("Invesco") today announced the June 2021 distributions for its Canadian-listed exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Unitholders of record on June 29, 2021 will receive cash distributions payable on July 7, 2021.
Place A Bag On Your Car Mirror When Traveling
Brilliant Car Cleaning Hacks Local Dealers Wish You Didn’t Know
2 Dividend Stocks That Could Be Paying You 10% Within 5 Years
Income investors often shy away from high-yielding dividend stocks because of the risk. Dividend growth stocks pay more over time and can help you get to that level. Two top income stocks that you should consider today are AbbVie (NYSE: ABBV) and Enbridge (NYSE: ENB).
AbbVie (ABBV) Outpaces Stock Market Gains: What You Should Know
AbbVie (ABBV) closed at $114.73 in the latest trading session, marking a +1.42% move from the prior day.
AbbVie Is One Of The Biggest Pharma Companies, But Is It A Buy Right Now?
Is AbbVie stock a buy now that shares are recovering somewhat after the Food and Drug Administration requested additional data before considering new approvals for Rinvoq?
UPDATE 1-U.S. Supreme Court rebuffs AbbVie appeal in patent fight involving AndroGel drug
The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday declined to hear AbbVie Inc's challenge to a lower court's decision that it violated federal antitrust law by pursuing a "sham" patent complaint against rival Perrigo Co over AbbVie's blockbuster testosterone replacement drug AndroGel. The justices turned away AbbVie's appeal and left intact the lower court's finding that its 2011 complaint against Perrigo was brought solely to delay Perrigo's proposed generic version of AndroGel. The Philadelphia-based 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals last year threw out a federal judge's order requiring AbbVie and partner Besins Pharmaceuticals to disgorge $448 million in profits to the Federal Trade Commission, but found that the judge had correctly determined that they had violated antitrust law.
Mom's Payback - She Bought Neighbor's Property
After so much drama and many police visits, she got the upper hand. Who would’ve thought that a small piece of paper has such power?
This Is Warren Buffett's Best Dividend Stock by Far
It might seem that Warren Buffett doesn't like dividends. After all, Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE: BRK.A) (NYSE: BRK.B) has never paid a dividend. There are more stocks in Berkshire's portfolio that pay dividends than ones that don't.
Warren Buffett's Highest-Yielding Dividend Stocks
Warren Buffett, CEO of Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE: BRK.A)(NYSE: BRK.B), is in a class of his own when it comes to investing. Since taking the helm at Berkshire Hathaway in the mid-1960s, he's delivered an average annual return of 20% for holders of its Class A shares. While there are a number of factors that have made Buffett an investing legend, perhaps the most overlooked reasons he's so successful are dividend stocks.
Next Market Crash 101: 2 Top Growth Stocks to Buy Right Now
Whether the volatility investors are currently seeing actually foreshadows another market crash is anyone's guess, and trying to time the market to predict the best windows for buying stocks can be a recipe for disaster. No matter how worried you may be about a crash, it's always a great time to invest in high-quality stocks that generate wealth-building portfolio returns. Facebook (NASDAQ: FB) is hardly a new choice for long-term investors, but it's the type of stock you can add more of to your portfolio time and time again.
AbbVie Declares Quarterly Dividend
The board of directors of AbbVie Inc. (NYSE: ABBV) today declared a quarterly cash dividend of $1.30 per share.
Supreme Court upholds Obamacare in latest ruling
On Thursday, the Supreme Court released its highly anticipated decision on a challenge to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as Obamacare. By a 7-2 vote, the court rejected the Republican-led challenge to the law.
2 Top Dividend Stocks You Can Buy and Hold Forever
Dividend stocks can be a great source of passive income, and fortunately, there is no shortage of dividend-paying companies in the stock market. After all, many companies slash, or outright suspend, their dividends once the economy stops working in their favor. If you are looking for dividend stocks that can pay you for the rest of your life, rest assured: They exist.
Influencers with Andy Serwer: David Ricks
In this episode of Influencers, Eli Lilly Chairman & CEO David Ricks joins Andy to discuss the latest in the pharmaceutical industry, new progress in the fight against COVID-19, and potential groundbreaking advancements for the treatment of Alzheimer’s.
Why AbbVie (ABBV) is a Great Dividend Stock Right Now
Dividends are one of the best benefits to being a shareholder, but finding a great dividend stock is no easy task. Does AbbVie (ABBV) have what it takes? Let's find out.
10 Best Dividend Stocks to Buy According to Billionaire Richard Chilton
In this article, we discuss the 10 best dividend stocks to buy according to billionaire Richard Chilton. If you want to skip our detailed analysis of Chilton’s history and hedge fund performance, go directly to the 5 Best Dividend Stocks to Buy Now According to billionaire Richard Chilton. Note that all hedge fund data is […]
FDA ‘shifting the bar’ for approval with new Alzheimer’s drug: Eli Lilly CEO
Eli Lilly CEO David Ricks joins 'Influencers with Andy Serwer' to discuss the FDA's approval of Biogen's new Alzheimer’s drug.
Here is What Hedge Funds Think About AbbVie Inc (ABBV)
Our extensive research has shown that imitating the smart money can generate significant returns for retail investors, which is why we track nearly 900 active prominent money managers and analyze their quarterly 13F filings. The stocks that are heavily bought by hedge funds historically outperformed the market, though there is no shortage of high profile […]
AbbVie (ABBV) Stock Sinks As Market Gains: What You Should Know
In the latest trading session, AbbVie (ABBV) closed at $115.40, marking a -0.02% move from the previous day.
I-Mab Seeks Multibillion-Dollar Cancer Drug Partnership
(Bloomberg) -- I-Mab is seeking a partner to jointly develop a cancer drug in the U.S. and Europe as the Chinese firm aims to replicate the success of last year’s $2.9 billion deal with AbbVie Inc., according to people familiar with the matter.The Shanghai-based drug developer is working with advisers and is in talks with several global pharmaceutical companies over a potential deal for its Uliledlimab, or TJD5, treatment that could be worth a few billion dollars, the people said, asking not to
JNJ's Imbruvica, AbbVie's Venclexta Combo Achieves Progression-Free Survival Of 78.4% Versus Gazyva-Chemo Cocktail In Leukemia Patients
A combination of Johnson & Johnson’s (NYSE: JNJ) Imbruvica and AbbVie Inc (NYSE: ABBV) - Roche Holding AG’s (OTC: RHHBY) Venclexta/Venclyxto (venetoclax) slashed the risk of cancer progression or death by 78.4% compared with a cocktail of Roche’s Gazyva and the chemotherapy chlorambucil in previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patients. The phase 3 GLOW trial data were shared at the European Hematology Association (EHA) annual meeting. In the
3 Top Dividend Stocks to Buy in June
If you're retired or approaching retirement, you'll definitely want to consider including high-quality dividend stocks in your portfolio. Here are three top dividend stocks that are great picks to buy in June. Arguably the most important thing to know about AbbVie's (NYSE: ABBV) pedigree is that it's a Dividend Aristocrat.
Forget Biogen: These 2 Under-the-Radar Biotechs Are Also Celebrating Breakthroughs
Biogen (NASDAQ: BIIB) stock rocketed to a six-year high earlier this week on news that its therapy, aducanumab, was the first Alzheimer's drug approved in nearly 20 years by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is a huge deal, not only for Alzheimer's patients, but for Biogen and its shareholders. There are two other biotech stocks, however, whose recent breakthroughs could drive the profits for years to come, and they are still priced modestly -- for now.
IMBRUVICA® (ibrutinib) Plus VENCLEXTA®/VENCLYXTO® (venetoclax) Combination Shows Superior Progression-Free Survival Compared to Chlorambucil Plus Obinutuzumab in First-line Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Phase 3 GLOW Study
AbbVie (NYSE: ABBV) today announced new data from the Phase 3 GLOW study comparing the efficacy and safety of the combination of IMBRUVICA® (ibrutinib) plus VENCLEXTA®/VENCLYXTO® (venetoclax) (I+V) versus chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (C+O) for first-line treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who had active disease requiring treatment per the International Workshop on CLL (iwCLL) criteria. The study met its primary endpoint of superior
AbbVie-Roche's Venclexta Shows Progression-Free Survival Of 74% In CLL Patients After Three Years Treatment
Genentech, a unit of Roche Holdings AG (OTC: RHHBY), and its collaborating partner AbbVie Inc (NYSE: ABBV) have announced long-term follow-up data from three Phase 3 trials of Venclexta (venetoclax) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Data will be presented at the European Hematology Association Virtual Congress. The four-year posthoc analysis of investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) had a median follow-up of 52.4 months. The study indicated that the chemotherapy-free Venclext
3 Absurdly Cheap Stocks to Buy in a Ridiculously Expensive Market
Stocks are so expensive that revered value investor Benjamin Graham might be spinning in his grave. If you think AbbVie's valuation looks appealing, you'll definitely want to check out Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY), as well.
New Data Shows AbbVie's VENCLYXTO®/VENCLEXTA® Fixed Duration Combination Demonstrates Sustained Progression-Free Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients after Three Years off Treatment
AbbVie (NYSE: ABBV) today announced results from a four-year follow-up analysis of the Phase 3 CLL14 trial, which showed that previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with coexisting conditions who were treated with VENCLYXTO®/VENCLEXTA® (venetoclax) plus obinutuzumab continued to show longer progression-free survival (PFS) and higher rates of undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) compared to patients receiving a standard of care chemoimmunotherapy regimen of o
13th Amendment ratified
On December 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, officially ending the institution of slavery, is ratified. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” With these words, the single greatest change wrought by the Civil War was officially noted in the Constitution.
The ratification came eight months after the end of the war, but it represented the culmination of the struggle against slavery. When the war began, some in the North were against fighting what they saw as a crusade to end slavery. Although many northern Democrats and conservative Republicans were opposed to slavery’s expansion, they were ambivalent about outlawing the institution entirely. The war’s escalation after the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia, in July 1861 caused many to rethink the role that slavery played in creating the conflict.
By 1862, Lincoln realized that it was folly to wage such a bloody war without plans to eliminate slavery. In September 1862, following the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all enslaved people in territory still in rebellion on January 1, 1863, would be declared forever free. The move was largely symbolic, as it only freed enslaved people in areas outside of Union control, but it changed the conflict from a war for the reunification of the states to a war whose objectives included the destruction of slavery.
Lincoln believed that a constitutional amendment was necessary to ensure the end of slavery. In 1864, Congress debated several proposals. Some insisted on including provisions to prevent discrimination against blacks, but the Senate Judiciary Committee provided the eventual language. It borrowed from the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, when slavery was banned from the area north of the Ohio River. The Senate passed the amendment in April 1864.
A Republican victory in the 1864 presidential election would guarantee the success of the amendment. The Republican platform called for the “utter and complete destruction” of slavery, while the Democrats favored restoration of states’ rights, which would include at least the possibility for the states to maintain slavery. Lincoln’s overwhelming victory set in motion the events leading to ratification of the amendment. The House passed the measure in January 1865 and it was sent to the states for ratification. When Georgia ratified it on December 6, 1865, the institution of slavery effectively ceased to exist in the United States.
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) announced today it will participate in the virtual Deutsche Bank Global Auto Industry Conference on June 16, 2021. Beginning at 2:15 p.m. EDT, Dana's Chairman and.
2020 Supplier Awards
Dana has announced its 2020 Supplier Awards recipients.
Dana Incorporated to Participate in KeyBanc Industrials & Basic Materials Virtual Conference
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) announced today it will participate in the virtual KeyBanc Industrials & Basic Materials Virtual Conference on June 1, 2021. Beginning at 10:40 a.m. EDT, Dana's.
Dana Prices €325 Million Senior Notes Offering
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) ("Dana") today announced that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Dana Financing Luxembourg S.à r.l., has priced its offering of €325 million aggregate principal amount.
Dana Announces Early Results of Tender Offer and Consent Solicitation for 2024 Notes
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) ("Dana") today announced that as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on May 12, 2021 (the "Early Tender Time"), holders of approximately $254 million aggregate.
Dana Launches €325 Million Senior Notes Offering
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) ("Dana") today announced that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Dana Financing Luxembourg S.à r.l., is proposing to issue €325 million aggregate principal amount of.
Dana Honored for its Holistic Approach to Sustainability
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) announced today that it has received the inaugural Sustainability Award in Automotive from the ATZ/MTZ Group and Roland Berger for its Holistic Sustainability.
Dana Incorporated to Participate in Oppenheimer Industrial Growth and Wells Fargo Industrials Conferences
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) announced today it will participate in the virtual Oppenheimer 16th Annual Industrial Growth Conference on May 4, 2021. Beginning at 1:30 p.m. EDT, Dana's Executive.
Dana Prices $400 Million Senior Notes Offering
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) ("Dana") today announced that it has priced its offering of $400 million aggregate principal amount of 4.250% Senior Notes due 2030. The company intends to allocate.
Dana Launches $400 Million Senior Notes Offering
Dana Incorporated (NYSE: DAN) ("Dana") today announced that it is commencing, subject to market conditions, a registered offering of $400 million aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured.
July was originally Quintilis, the fifth month of the year in the Roman calendar and consisted of 31 days. It was changed around 450 BCE when January became the first month of the year. Its name was changed during the Julian calendar reform in 45 BCE to honor Julius Caesar.
In modern times, July also has 31 days. It is the warmest month of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and coldest month in the Southern hemisphere.
The month of July starts on the same day of the week as April during common years and as January during leap years. July does not end on the same day of the week as any year in a common year but ends on the same day of the week as January in a leap year.
Historical Events in 1962
Event of Interest
- 1st AFL All Star Game, Balboa Stadium, SD: Western Division beats Eastern Division, 47-27 MVP Cotton Davidson, Dallas Texans, QB
Jan 7 Assassination attempt fails on Indonesian President Sukarno
- Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to John Hall Wheelock Dutch express train crashes into slow commuter train, 93 die (Neth)
Event of Interest
Jan 8 21 year old future Hall of Fame golfer Jack Nicklaus makes his first professional appearance tied 50th in Los Angeles Open
- Mister M (Dr X) beats Verne Gagne in Minn, to become NWA champ NFL prohibits grabbing of face masks US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Eruptions on Mount Huascaran in Peru destroy 7 villages & kill 3,500 Volcano Huascaran in Peru erupts killing 4,000
Agent Orange in Vietnam
Jan 12 Operation Ranch Hand begins, a US Air Force operation to spray South Vietnamese forests with defoliants such as Agent Orange
- Operation Chopper begins, America's first combat mission in the Vietnam War "Do Re Mi" closes at St James Theater NYC after 400 performances
Event of Interest
Jan 13 Philadelphia center Wilt Chamberlain scores 73 points in Warriors' 135-117 win over Chicago Packers at the time, most points scored in NBA regulation game, and remains tied for 3rd-highest total
The Twist Dance Craze
Jan 13 Chubby Checker's song "The Twist", credited with starting the Twist dance craze, goes to #1 in the charts two years after first reaching number one spot
NFL Pro Bowl
Jan 14 12th NFL Pro Bowl, LA Memorial Coliseum: Western Conference beats Eastern Conference, 31-30 MVPs: Jim Brown, Cleveland Browns, RB Henry Jordan, Green Bay Packers, DT
Event of Interest
Jan 15 Coco the Clown [Nicolai Poliakoff] is the subject of the BBC TV programme "This is Your Life"
- 50th Australian Championships Women's Tennis: Margaret Smith beats Jan Lehane O'Neill in the final for 3rd straight year 6-0, 6-2
Australian Men's Tennis Open
Jan 15 50th Australian Championships Men's Tennis: Rod Laver takes the 1st leg of his 1st Grand Slam beats fellow Queenslander Roy Emerson 8-6, 0-6, 6-4, 6-4
- Shooting begins on "Dr No" the first James Bond film Suit accuses NYC Board of Education uses "racial quotas"
NBA All-Star Game
Jan 16 12th NBA All-Star Game, St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Mo: West beats East, 150-130 MVP: Bob Pettit, St. Louis Hawks, C All-Star record 27 rebounds
Etiology and Pathophysiology
The most common classification system for hyponatremia is based on volume status: hypovolemic (decreased total body water with greater decrease in sodium level), euvolemic (increased total body water with normal sodium level), and hypervolemic (increased total body water compared with sodium).11
Plasma osmolality has a role in the pathophysiology of hyponatremia. Osmolality refers to the total concentration of solutes in water. Effective osmolality is the osmotic gradient created by solutes that do not cross the cell membrane. Effective osmolality determines the osmotic pressure and the flow of water.11 Plasma osmolality is maintained by strict regulation of the arginine vasopressin (also called antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) system and thirst. If plasma osmolality increases, ADH is secreted and water is retained by the kidneys, thus decreasing serum osmolality. If plasma osmolality decreases, ADH also decreases, resulting in diuresis of free water and a return to homeostasis.12 , 13
VIAF: Виртуальный международный авторитетный файл
VIAF® (Виртуальный международный авторитетный файл) объединяет несколько авторитетных файлов имен, размещается и поддерживается в качестве сервиса OCLC как общий проект нескольких национальных библиотек, а также выбранных региональных и транснациональных библиотечных агентств. Цель проекта: снижение стоимости и повышение качества библиотечных авторитетных файлов путем выявления совпадений и установления ссылок на широко используемые авторитетные файлы и предоставление такой информации в Web. Learn more .
- Library of Congress/NACO
- National Library of Mexico
- British Library
- Library and Archives Canada
- National Agricultural Library (U.S.)
- National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
- National Library of New Zealand
- National Library of Scotland
- National Library of South Africa
- National Library of Wales
- Israel Museum
- National Library of Norway
- DBC (Danish Bibliographic Center)
- Danish Agency for Culture
Пояснение к поисковому предписанию: по поисковому предписанию в верхней части этой страницы осуществляется поиск в VIAF объединенного представления имен, полученных из авторитетных и библиографических данных библиотек-участниц проекта.
May 13, 2015 Day 113 of the Seventh Year - History
Welcome to OHIO GENEALOGY EXPRESS . .
The Quickest Way to Find your Roots thru FREE Genealogy Research
A Part of Genealogy Express *
EVERYONE STAY SAFE. Wash hands often and try to stay home.
This Corona Virus won't last if you are vigilant about saftiness please be patient
Wishing you all the best!
Working on other States
As well as Ohio
ALSO military additions in other states and counties
updated throughout the year since May
28 Biographies & Histories
Added over 256 biographies
and some history.
Part of history publ. 1901
Updated 9/30/ 2020
Added 195 biographies
& Several Portrait s
Added 67 Biographies
Added 46 Biographies
Added Salem Twp. History.
May . 22, 2021
Added Biographies (139)
From Histories publ. 1880 & 1903
Also Finished Military Records
Added 82 Biographies
Updated 6/18/ 2020
Added Biography Index
for Biographical and
Updated 9/17/ 2018
Updated 11/02/ 2018
Reworking ALL pages
Adding some Marriages
Added Will Indexes
As of 7/11/ 2020
Added 50 biographies from History publ. 1882
Working on History publ. 1915
Added lots of portraits
As of 6/19/2021
Added 156 biographies
& Table of Contents for
History publ. 1926
Updated 10/19/ 2018
Added 37 Biographies
Updated 11/22/ 2018
Added 41 Biographies
Updated 3/28/ 2020
Adding Military Records
Added biographical index
for History 1904
Added Biographies & Histories
Updated 7/17/ 2018
Biographies - 91
& Marion Twp., etc.
Updated 6/1/ 2020
Added to the Index of Wills and Guardianships
Added to Histories and Biographies
Added List of Abstracts of Wills
Updated 9/10/ 2018
Updated 8/1/ 2020
Worked on History
Finished transcribing Illustrated Historical & Business Review of Meigs & Gallia Cos., OH - Publ. 1891 - Gallia section only.
Updated 10/17/ 2018
Added 79 biogaphies
Added 79 biographies
Updated 6/20/ 2020
History publ. 1904, 1881 & 1894
Added 176 Biographies & other items
Updated 6/12/ 2018
Added 1833 Tax Record
Updating as of 1/3/ 2020
Added 105 Biographies & Genealogies
Also Marriages & Land Patents
Updated 3/26/ 2020
Updated 7/5/ 2020
77 names added
Histories publ. 1890 & 1902
Formed March ___
Added 72 Biographies
& partial history 1883
Updated 8/23/ 2020
Added some of Atlas of Holmes Co.,
Added 104 Biographies
& Death Index, etc.
Added Tables of Contents
for Firelands Pioneer Quarterlies
and some records within.
Updated 5/7/ 2020
Added 48 Biographies
Updated 6/25/ 2018
Updated 5/20/ 2020
Added 178 Biographies
& Started 1903 Farmers Directory
Updated 6/26/ 2018
Updated 2/27/ 2018
Soldiers who have died in Defence of our Union.
113 biographies added
updated History 1889 Granville
Updated 7/18/ 2020
Added 54 biographies
& a little history
More Biographies to come
added 49 biographies
Updated 8/5/ 2018
Updated 2/15/ 2020
Over 200 Biographies
Reworked Biog. Index Page.
Updated 4/21/ 2018
Added 39 biographies
Updated 8/21/ 2017
Meigs History publ. 1908
Added 61 Biographies
89 Biographies added
Updated 3/14/ 2018
History publ. 1882
5/23/ 2020 -
Added 1897 Biographical Index
Added over to 200 biographies
Updated Township chapters.
Added chapters in histories
Updated 8/12/ 2018
Working on 1887 History as of
Added over 243 biographies (short and long)
Updated 4/5/ 2018
Updated 11/19/ 2018
& Plat Maps
Updated 10/3/ 2018
June 2, 2019
Wkng on Military publ. 1880
Worked on 1883 History
Updated 8/14/ 2020
Added New biographical Index publ. 1900
Also Worked on 1875 City Directory
Added many biographies 8/14/2020
Added new Biographical Index
and a 143 biographies
Updated 5/24/ 2020
Added 87 biographies
More to come on 5/24/2020
Updated 6/4/ 2020
Added 30 Biographies
and 4 township histories
Updated 1/16/ 2020
Added 6 biographies
Updated 10/27/ 2018
Added 133 Biographies
Updated 4/20/ 2020
Added 65 Biographies
More to come
Updated 2/14/ 2020
Added lots of biographies
Reworked Index page and other pages.
Added 22 Biographies
Added 50 biographies
Finished War in Union County Book published 1883.
Transcribed some county histories in
History of Union County, Ohio publ. 1883 .
Transcribed 237 Biographies
and some of township histories.
Updated 12/3/ 2018
from History of Hocking Valley, Ohio
Updated 7/13/ 2018
City Directory - partial
Added 46 biographies
Updated 10/8/ 2018
51 Biographies added
Added Table of Contents for History Publ. 1920
Added biographical index to History publ. 1905
& Table of Contents
Added 55 Biographies 6/16/2019
- Added 56 Biographies
& some portraits
Updated 5/29/ 2018
76 Biographies added
Dedicated to FREE Genealogy
I am Celebrating
13 YEARS' STRONG!!
since July 23rd, 2008
Hit a Brick Wall, did you? Ohio Genealogy Express is here
to help you speed up your journey.
I will be putting on updates daily so come back often
Good Luck and Happy Hunting.
Thanks very much to the kind person that helped me keep this website going.
THE WHOLE MONTH OF FEBRUARY was Dedicated to BLACK HISTORY.
You can find it HERE.
PLEASE SIGN MY GUESTBOOK:
NOTE: Sometimes the Guestbook is a little difficult to post on as it uses codes to keep spammers out.
If you do sign the guest book, I suggest you copy what you write so if it does reject the code, all you have to do is paste the contents on it and you won't have to try to remember what you typed. That can be very frustrating.
OHIO STATE CAPITAL BUILDING
CLICK HERE to see how the SEAL has evolved over the years.
Bureau of Vital Statistics
Ohio Department of Health
35 East Chestnut Street, 6th Floor
P.O. Box 15098
Columbus, OH 43215-0098
TO ORDER BIRTH/DEATH CERTIFICATES:
Ohio Department of Health
225 Neilston Street
Columbus, Ohio 43215
Phone: (614) 466-2531
OHIO was admitted to Statehood on March 1, 1803
OHIO's State Flag was adopted in 1902. The Ohio Burgee, as the swallowtail design is properly called, was designed by John Eisemann . The large blue triangle represents Ohio's hills and valleys, and the stripes represent the original states of the union the 4 stars added to the peak of the triangle symbolize that Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the union. The white circle with its red center not only represents the "O" in Ohio, but also suggests Ohio's famous nickname, "The Buckeye State"
The origin of state's name was from the Iroquois Indian word for "good river" . The Capitol of Ohio is COLUMBUS, Franklin Co., Ohio
State motto: "With God all things are possible"
SEARCH THIS SITE
along with my 2 other websites for Genealogy Research
PLEASE NOTE : This website is indexed on the internet once a week.
With that in mind, you may want to search again in a day or so to see if there are any` additions. Please check back often.
This will help me make sure there is something on each day better. The however, you can click on the link to the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 & 2021 calendar to see what I have done, by the day, since August, 2010
You may email me, personally HERE
See ya in the emails,
Yer Trusty Dusty Webmaster. Sharon Wick
This Website is paid for by me, Sharon Wick
along with a few donations by generous contributors.
It is maintained by myself, only.
All donations of data to this website will be owned by the submitter and
will be taken down on request.
I do my best not to infringe on any copyright laws so if
anyone sees anything that may be 'over the line', please contact me.
Thanks, Sharon Wick
If you want to send contributions to the website such as Cemetery Readings, Older Obituaries, marriages, births, biographies, news items, ship passenger lists. anything that pertains to things before 1920, please feel free to send them. I am always looking for new things to add to the website.
I will add your name as the contributor.
Button Graphics, some background graphics and certain maps
have been created by me.
Thanks, Sharon Wick
I discovered some very sad news:
I had two helpers when I first started this website.
Their names were
Nancy Boyd Hannah
and Linda Blue Dietz.
They both decided they could not work on the website any more
and so I kept them as friends on my FaceBook.
I haven't talked to them much since I moved to Illinois (temporarily)
so I didn't know.
I decided to chat with Linda and found that she had passed away!
So I decided to tell Nancy about it and found
She had passed away as well.
I knew Linda was in bad health but I had no idea that Nancy may have been in bad health as well.
I am in shock.
May they both Rest in Peace.
And my prayers go out to their families for healing.
Adding MIlitary for Delaware Co., OH
Roster of Ohio Soldiers in War of 1812
Adding other data as well
ENGLAND - 3/27/2018
- Nofolk - Updated /3/27/2018
IRELAND - Updated 9/15/2019
MEXICO - Updated 5/18/2018
SCOTLAND - Added
SPAIN - Updated 5/18/2018
For Donations, please use the following:
Sharon A. Wick
P. O. Box 10202
Peoria, IL 61612
Use PAY PAL
Add 75,499 visits to total
Where Protection from
is our main concerns.
Fluoride: A Chronological History
Over 170 million people, or 67 percent of the United States population drink fluoridated water. 43 of the 50 largest cities in the country are fluoridated.
After reading this you will understand what water fluoridation and fluoride containing anti-depressants like Prozac are all about.
Also take a close look how many times it has been scientifically proven that fluoride damages DNA.
Material Added on November 3, 1997
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A Chronology of Fluoridation
1855 Smelters in Freiburg, Germany first paid damages to neighbors injured by fluoride emissions. (See 1893)
1893 The smelters in Freiburg, Germany paid out 80,000 marks in damages for fluorine contamination injuries and 644,000 marks for permanent relief. (See 1855, 1900, 1907).
1900 The existence of the smelting industry in Germany and Great Britain is threatened by successful lawsuits for fluorine damage and by budensome laws and regulations.
1907 The smelters in Freiburg, Germany (see 1893) are identified as the cause of cripplied cattle in the area since 1877, and fluorides are identified as the culprit.
1916 The first evidence of brown mottling of teeth is reported in the United States, and would be eventually found to be caused by fluorides in water.
1922 Aluminum production (along with production of toxic by-product sodium fluoride) increases. Aluminum cookware is mass introduced in the US, beginning the gradual accumulation of aluminum in the brains of Americans. Additional aluminum is injected into society in “antacids” and toothpaste tubes, which aggrevate the action of toxic fluorides.
1928 The equivalent of the U.S. Public Health Service is under the jurisdiction of Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon, a founder and major stockholder of ALCOA aluminum, a major producer of toxic fluoride wastes. Mellon would step down from control of the Public Health in 1931.
1928 Edward L.Bernays, nephew to Sigmund Freud, writes the book Propaganda, in which he explains the structure of the mechanism which controls the public mind, and how it is manipulated by those who wish to create public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity. Says Bernays, “those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. Our minds are molded, our tastes are formed, largely by men we have never heard of.” Bernays represents another connection to Germany and would be essential in the fluoride campaign in the United States. Wrote Bernay’s, “if you can influence group leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway.” (See Bernay’s, 1947, and the fluoride campaign).
1930 Kettering Laboratory is founded from gifts from Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont (all who have interlocking relationships with I.G. Farben in Germany) to “investigate chemical hazards in American industrial operations” under contract, with provision that research “shall not be released to the public without the consent of the contracting company.” During the mid-20th century, Kettering dominated the medical literature on the toxicology of fluorides, but information was not released into the public domain.
1931 A considerable portion of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities are dedicated to the study of fluorides. Under contract, the studies are not releasable to the public. (See also 1939, Mellon Institute)
1931 Three independent groups of scientists determine that fluoride in the water is the cause of dental mottling. Research teams from ALCOA Aluminum (who have fluorides as a hazardous by-product of aluminum manufacture) and the University of Arizona. Also shown by North African investigators and others. Dr. Gerald Cox of the Mellon Institute, owners of ALCOA, would later solve the expensive disposal problem with toxic fluorides by convincing others that it could be dumped in the public water supply as a “preventative” for tooth decay.
1931 Under an agreement with I.G. Farben, ALCOA accepts a restriction on the production of magnesium in the U.S, hampering the war effort, while Germany itself stepped up production. Most of the U.S. production was shipped out of the country to Germany.
1931 Public Health Service dentist H. Trendley Dean is dispatched by ALCOA founder Andrew Mellon to certain remote towns in the Western U.S. where water wells have a naturally high concentration of calcium fluorides. Dean’s mission would be to find out how much fluoride people could physically tolerate before obvious visible damage to their teeth. Dean publishes a purposely skewed and deceptive study which purports to show that at 1ppm, flourides result in the “reduction of tooth decay”. (See Gerald Cox, 1939)
1931 The Mellon Institute is ALCOA’s Pittsburgh research lab.
1931 From 1931 to 1939, the U.S. Public Health Service seeks to remove fluorides from water supplies because of endemic mottled teeth. ALCOA’s fluoride proposals have not been bought into by the public or government yet.
1931 I.G. Farben and Alcoa Aluminum sign Alted Agreement pooling patents, which would continue through 1939 and beyond. I.G. Farben complex begins large contributions to fund Nazi cause.
1933 A study is published in which it is shown that fluorides inhibit the action relative to lipase on ethyl acetate in vivo 50 percent at a concentration of one part in 15 million. (McClure, F.J., “A Review of Fluorine and its physiological effects”, Physiological Review, 13: 295-297, July 1933).
1933 According to a study by Freni in 1994 (71), in 1933 and again in 1984 that fluorides produce cumulative generational effects on biological organisms.
1937 U.S. Public Health Service publishes material indicating that fluoride concentrations in many U.S. cities varied between 0.6 ppm to 8.0 ppm. A concentration of 0.9 ppm means that over 10% of children have mottled teeth and tooth deformities.
1937 A clinical hygienic study by K. Roholm in 1937, Fluoride Intoxication, published by H.K. Lewis, London. Roholm is convinced that fluorides cross the placental barrier into the fetus. (70). This realization is echoed in 1951 by an M.D. and chemist from the University of Oregon Medical School.
1938 Dr. Wallace Armstrong and P.J.Brekhus at the University of Minnesota Department of Biochemistry publish a study in which they claim that the enamel of sound teeth had a significantly greater fluoride content than the enamel of teeth with cavities. Armstrong was to admit that these results were false. In a followup study in 1963, Dr. Armstrong found no difference in the fluoride contents of the enamal of sound or decayed teeth.
1938 The University of Mexico Bulletin, August 1, 1938, in an article entitled “Menace of Fluorine to Health”, states “Solutions of sodium fluoride with a fluoride content as low as one part in 15 million may inhibit the action of the lipase (pancreatic juice) as much as 50 percent.”
1939 The ALCOA company, the world’s largest producer of sodium fluoride,transfers it technology under the Alted Agreement to Germany. Dow Chemical follows suit.
1939 ALCOA-sponsored bochemist Gerald J. Cox fluoridates rats in his lab and mysteriously concludes that “fluoride reduces cavities”. He makes a public proposal that the U.S. should fluoridate its water supplies. Cox begins to tour the United States, stumping for fluoridation.
1939 Scientists at I.G. Farben prepare the first sample of fluorinated nerve gas Sarin.
1939 On September 29, 1939, Mellon Institute scientist Gerald J. Cox plays a major role in the promotion of fluoridation by saying “the present trend toward removal of fluorides from food and water may need reversal. Water engineers had been recommending a maximum allowable fluoride contaminant level of 0.1 part per million (ppm), maintaining a tenfold margin of safety. (When fluorides were eventually added to water through corporate pressure, that safety factor would be thrown out and the level raised tenfold beyond the engineering recommendations in 1939, when fluoride was properly recognized as a toxic contaminant. Note: Mellon Institute was founded by Andrew and Richard Mellon, former owners of ALCOA Aluminum, plagued by disposal problems of toxic fluoride by products. ALCOA also had a relationship with I.G. Farben in Germany)
1939 U.S. Public Health Service regulations state “the presence of fluorides in excess of 1 ppm shall constitute rejection of the water supply.” (Yet, when water fluoridation is instituted, levels are set at a minumum of 1 ppm)
1939 Volume 9 Report to the House Un-American Activities Committee delves deeply into the alleged use of fluoridation to keep the American people docile, so they would accept the changing of their system of government to a socialist state.
1940 “Fluoride inhibits neuromuscular activity”. Ref: Russo, G. Att.Acad. Sci. Nat. 1940.
1940 Soviet concentration camps maintained by fluoride administration to inmates to decrease resistance to authority and induce physical deteriorization.
1942 “Fluorine may cause anoxia in the newborn and shorten the period of their survival” Ref: Himwich, H.E., et al., American Journal of Physiology, 1942.
1942 Germany becomes worlds largest producer of aluminum (and Sodium Fluoride). Fluoride is used in the concentration camps to render the prisoners docile and inhibit the questioning of authority.
1943 Researchers from the US Public Health Service examine the health of residents of Bartlett, Texas to see if the 8ppm fluoride in the drinking water was affecting their health. It was checked again in 1953. They find that the death rate in Bartlett was three times higher than a neighboring town which contained 0.4 ppm fluoride.
1943 A special New York State Health Department Committee is appointed to study the advisability of adding fluoride to Newburg’s drinking water, chaired by Dr. Hodge, then chief of fluoride toxicity studies for the Manhattan Project.
1943 The Journal of the American Medical Association on September 18, 1943, contains an article, “Chronic Fluorine Intoxication”, which states, “fluorides are general protoplasmic poisons, changing the permeability of the cell membrane by inhibiting certain enzymes. The exact mechanism of such actions, it was said, are obscure. The sources of fluorine intoxication are drinking water containing 1ppm or more of fluorine, fluorine compounds used as insecticidal sprays for fruits and vegatables (cryolite and barium fluoro- silicate) and the mining and conversion of phosphate rock to superphosphate, which is used as a fertilizer. That process alone releases approximately 25,000 tons of pure fluorine into the atmosphere annually. Other sources of fluorine intoxication is from the fluorides used in the smelting of many metals, such as steel and aluminum, and in the production of glass, enamel and brick.”
1943 Environmental pollution by toxic metals, including fluorides, affects forests, livestock, and urban residents, but coverage remains on local levels.
1944 “Even at 1ppm, fluoride in drinking water poisons cattle, horses and sheep” (Moules, G.R., Water Pollution Research and Summary of Current Literature, 1944.
1944 The city manger of Grand Rapids, Michigan announces that the Michigan State Department of Health is planning a long range experiment with fluoridated water and that Grand Rapids was selected as the location for the experiment. The city commission approves a motion to fluoridate on July 31, and decides it is to begin in January 1945, despite the warning issued three months earlier, ironically, by the American Dental Association. Grand Rapids becomes the first city in the United States to conduct this experiment. It was to serve as the test city to be compared against un-fluoridated Muskegon for a period of ten years relative to tooth decay, “at which time it would be determined whether or not fluoride was “safe and effectiv.” Dr. H. Trendley Dean was put in charge of the project. The experiment was terminated early, after the control city was fluoridated, ruining the validity of the experiment, with the pronouncement that fluorides in public water supplies was “safe”.See 1945.
1944 The Pentagon Scientific Research and Development Group further pursued the project to fluoridate the drinking water of Newburg, New York. Members included Henry L. Barnett, a captain in the Manhattan Project medical section, John W. Fertig, SRDG, Dr. Hodge, and David Ast, chief dental officer of the New York State Health Department, who was placed in charge of the Newburg Project. The group sought information on cumulative effects, which was also a goal of the Manhattan Project. (See below)
1944 Through 1948. Previously classified documents from Manhattan Project which indicate the government knew the physiological and psycho-behavioral effects of fluorides, as a result of studies connected with determining the effect of uranium hexafluoride processing on workers, as well as studies in defense of litigation against the project by tree growers who experienced fluoride damage from airborne pollutants connected with the project. Ref: Declassified documents from the National Archives published in 1997.
1944 An April 29, 1944 Manhattan Project memo, released in 1997, states “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect, with mental confusion, drowsiness and lassitude as the conspicuous features… it seems that the fluoride component is the causative factor….since work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure, if workmen are to be properly protected. This is important not only to protect a given individual, but also to prevent a confused workman from injuring others by improperly performing his duties”. Ref: Previously classified SECRET Manhattan Project Memo, 29 April 1944, declassified and released from the National Archives.
1944 Oscar Ewing is put on the payroll of the Aluminum Company of America ALCOA), as an attorney, at an annual salary of $750,000. In 1947, Ewing was made Federal Security Agency Administrator, with the announcement that he was taking a big cut in salary. The US Public Health Service, then a division of the FSA, comes under the command of Ewing, and he begins to vigorously promote fluoridation nationwide. Ref: May 25-27 Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. A by-product of aluminum manufacture is toxic sodium fluoride. Ewings public relations strategist for the fluoride campaign was the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward L. Bernays. Bernays conducts a public relations campaign to promote fluorine ingestion by applying Freudian theory to induce public acceptance. It was one of Bernays most successful campaigns.
1944 The October 1944 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association cautions that “knowledge of the subject does not warrant the introduction of fluorine in community water supplies generally. Sodium fluoride is a highly toxic substance, and while its applications in safe concentrations, and under strict control by competent personnel, may prove to be useful therepeutically, under other circumstances it may definitely be harmful. To be effective, fluorine must be ingested into the system during the years of tooth development, and we do not yet know enough about the chemistry involved to anticipate what other conditions may be produced in the structure of the bone and other tissues of the body generally. We do know that the use of drinking water containing as little as 1.2 to 3.0 ppm of fluorine will cause such developmental disturbances in bones as osteosclerosis, spondylosis, and osteopetrosis, as well as goiter, and we cannot run the risk of producing such serious systemic disturbances in applying what is at present a doubtful procedure intended to prevent development of dental disfigurements among children … because of our anxiety to find some therapeutic procedure that will promote mass prevention of caries, the seeming potentialities of fluorine appear speculatively attractive, but, in the light of our present knowledge or lack of knowledge of the chemistry of the subject, the potentialities for harm far outweigh those for good.”
1945 An FDA Chief inspector discovers that fluorides are being added to beer by the Commonwealth Brewing Company of Massachusetts (the same state where they did experimental fluoride treatments on institutionalized children). The owner of the brewery was arrested and subjected to a Federal jury trial for poisoning the beer. The indictment charged that the beer contained “an added poison or deleterious poison, fluoride, which was unsafe within the meaning of the statute (Section 301a of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act), since it was a substance not required in the production of the beer, it could have been avoided by good manufacturing practice.” The fact was established that the fluoride was added in the concentration of 0.5 ppm. The jury was instructed that fluoride was established to be harmful and poisonous, and that it was unimportant to show how much beer it would take to demonstrate harmful effects. Beer was classified as a food and fluoride as a poison in 1945. The Commonwealth Brewery Company was slapped with a $10,000 fine, and Kaufmann, the owner, was given a 6 month suspended jail sentence and a three year probation period.
1945 Newburgh, New York has their water supply fluoridated in May 1945. Subsequent exams of the children by x-ray reveal that almost 14% have cortical defects in bone, compared to the nearby unfluoridated town of Kingston, where 7.5% have bone defects. The data is suppressed. In tandum, Project F (connected with the Manhattan Project) conducted their own studies of Newburg residents, focusing on the amounts of fluoride Newburg residents retained in the tissues and blood – key information sought by the bomb program, according to previously classified documents released in 1997. See 1956.
1945 The newspaper Philadelphia Record, 18 October 1945, reveals an article entitled “First Bomb Suit for Ruined Peaches filed by Salem County Growers for $400,000” details suits against chemical manufacturers connected with the Manhattan Atomic Bomb Project for hydrogen fluoride damage to peach groves. Companies involved were DuPont de Nemours (which has been interacting with I.G. Farben in Nazi Germany), the Sun Oil Company and the General Chemical Company.
1945 The government does a public test case of fluoridation, comparing fluoridated Grand Rapids with unfluoridated Muskegon, Michigan. The study is to last ten years. After one year, it becomes obvious to the government that fluorides do not conform to their public propaganda, and the study is terminated. The city of Muskegon is then fluoridated in 1947 to conceal the difference in effect. Other experiments are performed covertly on population areas, without the knowledge of the subjects.
1945 Covert experiments with fluorides are conducted in Massachusetts and in Connecticut between 1945 and 1946 on indigent, mentally retarded children at state-run schools. According to 1954 testimony of Florence Birmingham, a trustee of the Wrentham State School in Massachusetts, her schools administration learned only by accident that fluorides were being put in the drinking water.
1945 A study reveals that fluoride’s affinity for magnesium and manganese ions enables it to deplete their availability for vital enzyme functions. (Borei, H., “Inhibition of Cellular Oxidation by Fluoride”, Arkiv.Kemi,Mineral,Geol., 20A, No. 8, 1945).
1946 A letter from the U.S. Engineer Office, Manhattan District, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Colonel Warren, Manhattan Project, 1 May 1946, regarding a trip to the DuPont plant, discusses the fluoride damage to the environment. The letter also states “Would there be any use in making attempts to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the part of residents of Salem and Gloucester counties through lectures on fluoride toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of fluoride in tooth health?” Letter signed by Harold C. Hodge, who was also involved in the Newburgh, New York experiments. Ref: Previously classified SECRET Manhattan Project Letter, 1 May 1946, declassified and released from the National Archives in 1997.
1946 An issue of Medical Biochemistry contains a research study by Everetts which indicates that blood clotting may be affected by fluorides.
1946 Reports from the House Committee on Un-American Activities in the Armed Forces for 1946 and 1947 reveal the dociling effect of fluorides in the water supplies at military bases on American troops.
1946 Water fluoridation proponents claim no benefits for people over 9 years of age, promising the magic effect of fluorides occurred prior to eruption of teeth. Despite this claim, all U.S. military reservations, populated by adults, were heavily fluoridated.
1946 Six more U.S. cities “allowed” to fluoridate their water supplies.
1947 ALCOA lawyer Oscar Ewing is appointed head of the Federal Security Agency, later HEW, a position that places him in charge of the Public Health Service. Under Ewing, a national fluoridation campaign rapidly materializes, spearheaded by the Public Health Service. Over the next three years, 87 additonal cities were fluoridated, including the control city of Muskegon in the original Michigan experiment, thus wiping out the most scientifically objective test of safety and “benefit” before the test was half over. Ewing’s public relations strategist for the fluoride campaign was Edward L. Bernays, Sigmund Freuds nephew, who pioneered Freudian theory toward advertising and government propaganda. (See Bernay’s, 1928 and his book Propaganda). Because of Bernay’s people would be induced to forget that fluorides were toxic poisons. Opponents to the fluoride program were painted as “deranged”. In 1996 they would be painted as “civil rights activists”.
1947 Forrestal appointed Secretary of Defense. Asked to resign in 1949 after noting forces planning the war in Korea. See 1949. Later murdered. Forrestal was very much opposed to the use of fluorides on military bases to keep the troops docile. (York Daily Times, Letters to the Editor from former FBI agent Wesley C. Trollope, Omaha, Neb., March 17, 1967).
1948 Study done in England where bone defects in three groups of school boys were studied. Two groups were from districts where the water supply was practically free of fluorine. The third group was from the town of Launton, where the natural water supply contains 1ppm of fluorine (the same as the level deemed “safe” by the U.S. Public Health Service). X-ray examination revealed that 20 percent of the first two groups had mild non-specific spinal irregularities. In the third group, the one consuming 1ppm fluoride in their water, 64% were found to have spinal defects, and lesions were more severe.
1948 A censored version of the Manhattan Project fluoride safety study is published in the August 1948 Journal of the American Dental Association. Comparison with the previously classified version in 1997 indicates that the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission did censor damaging information on fluorides. Ref: Fluorides, Teeth and the Atomic Bomb, 1997.
1948 John McCone becomes Secretary of Defense of the United States. McCone gives contracts to Standard Oil and Kaiser Aluminum, in which he already has financial interests. Aluminum manufacture by-products, fluorides, would be added to the population water supplies to induce submission by damaging the brain and stem resistence to domination by global socialism.
1950 The 24th edition of the U.S. Dispensatory (pp 1456-1457)defines fluorides as “violent poisons to all living tissue because of their precipitation of calcium. They cause fall of blood pressure, respiratory failure, and general paralysis. Continous ingestion of non-fatal doses causes permanent inhibition of growth … the use of fluoride-containing dentifrices and internal medicants is not justified.” In subsequent editions, the editors removed this entire portion. Why? Science and biology doesn’t change. Political agendas do.
1950 The publication Science features research by C.W. Sheppard which indicates that fluorides “lower hemoglobin and may cause irreversible loss of potassium from the red cells.”
1950 Alcoa Aluminum’s Vancouver, Washington plant is found guilty of dumping 7,000 pounds of toxic fluorides each month into the Columbia River. According to the December 15, 1952 Seattle Times, “the fluoride contaminated the grass and forage and resulted in injury and death to cattle.” See 1957 (Alcoa).
1950 The U.S. Public Health Service officially publicly endorses the concept of the addition of fluorides to public water supplies.
1950 The Seventh Annual Report of the Sugar Research Foundation recognizes sugar as the major cause of tooth decay. The SRF furnishes grants to the Harvard Department of Nutrition to “solve the tooth decay problem without restricting sugar consumption”. The result of these grants was the advocating of water fluoridation.
1950 From 1950 to 1951, ALCOA advertises sodium fluoride for addition to water supplies.
1950 The Seventh Annual Report of the Sugar Research Foundation (130 corporations) expresses its “aim in dental research” : to discover means of controlling tooth decay by methods other than restricting sugar intake. Two institutions most aggressive in promotion of water fluoridation, the Dental Schools of Harvard and the University of Rochester, receive large grants for fluoride research from the sugar industry.
1950 Soviets add fluorides to water in prison system to maintain subservience in the inmate population, affect the central nervous system and produce compliance with authority. Fluorides shipped from the US via Alaska, starting in the 1940’s, to the Soviets for use in their Gulag prison system. The U.S. continues to promote addition of fluorides to public water supplies.
1950 In the Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol 40:440, April 1950, was a study by G.J. Cox and H.C. Hodge, “Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry”, which says, “Some of the basic and necessary metabolic processes in the cell are stopped by concentrations of fluorides such as are found in acute poisoning. These changes are comparable to those seen in high-grade anoxia and are the basis for describing fluorides as general protoplasmic poisons.” Study also quoted in JADA Nov 1962, pp.687-688.
1951 The February 10, 1951 issue of JAMA Medical Literature reports the following symptoms of chronic fluoride poisoning, stating “Chronic intoxications resulting from prolonged intake of smaller amounts of fluorides include dental fluorosis. Fluoride also tends to accumulate in bones, leading to hypercalcification and brittleness. Ligaments and tendons also become calcified. Serious symptoms may ensue, such as loss of mobility of joints, easy fractures and pressure on the spinal chord. Other effects include baldness in young men, accompanied by increased fluoride concentrations in hair and nails, anemia and decreased blood clotting power due to the binding of calcium. Dysmenorrhea, alterations in growth and weight, lowered birth rate, high incidence of fractyre, thyroid alterations and liver damage have been observed in regions of endemic fluorosis.”
1951 The U.S. Public Health Service, with the cooperation of the American Dental Association, holds a meeting of state dental directors at which the methods for promotion of fluoridation were outlined. Thus the USPHS formed an alliance with medical trade unions and industry to promote the addition of toxic fluorides to the public water supplies. A concentration of 1.2 ppm was suggested, and state dental directors were instructed to lie to the public about the toxic effects of sodium fluoride, deliberately misinform the public by relating the presence of “high-fluoride areas” to “less cancer and less polio” – an entire public relations campaign meant to convince the public to allow themselves to be medicated – just like the inmates in Soviet and German prisons and camps. Their technique was not to refute the thing but to show that the opposite was true, even if the opposite was not true. Ref: Proceedings of the 1951 meeting in Washington D.C.
1952 After Dr. A.L. Miller, former Nebrasks Health Commissioner, became a Congressman, and found he had been bamboozled by the former highly paid attorney for Alcoa Aluminum, Oscar Ewing (who later founded Triangle Research Park) into helping fluoridate the water of Washington, D.C., Miller revealed at a Congressional Hearing, reported in the March 24, 1952 Congressional Record, how he had been misled. He wondered aloud about how Mr. Ewing became Federal Security Administrator and whether Alcoa “might not have a deep interest in getting rid of the waste products from the manufacture of aluminum products”. Miller asked Dr. John D. Porterfield of the U.S. Department of Agriculture if studies had been done to see what fluorides might do to pregnant women. Porterfield replied, “They have different objectives in mind, sir. There is more money available for matters that have economic value than there is for health.”
1952 The American Dental Association publishes an issue of its Journal instructing its dentists not to discuss their personal opinions about fluoride.
1952 From 1952 to 1956, the cities on the “fluoridation list” began to fluoridate their water supplies. As the process of water fluoridation continued, the cancer death rate of the fluoridated cities began to far exceed the rate of the unfluoridated cities.
1952 San Francisco begins to fluoridate its public water supplies.
1952 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania begins to fluoridate its water supplies. On Oct 15, 1967, the Pittsburg Press would report that 98% of the school children 13-15 years of age had crooked teeth in Pittsburgh.
1952 During February through April 1952, dental officers from England visit the United States, including the National Institute of Dental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and the ADA headquarters in Chicago. Host of the visit are Surgeon General Scheele and Assistant Surgeon General Knutson. All four members of the British committee are “convinced”, and return to England.
1952 U.S. “Public Health” officials Dr. Dean, Dr. Arnold and McClure concentrate their efforts to introduce fluoridation into Australia and New Zealand.
1952 Congressional representative from Nebraska, Dr. A.L.Miller, who was also the Chairman of the Special Committee on Chemicals and Foods, comments on the fact that within 3 months the USPHS, who did not endorse fluoridation of public water supplies, suddenly reversed course and promoted it very heavily. Dr. Miller said he could not find any public evidence that the AMA, the ADA and other health agencies had done any work at all on researching the safety, but were in fact just endorsing each other’s opinions in support of the program. Miller noted that all scientific experts in biochemistry had advised the “go-slow” sign relative to fluoridation of public water. Dr. Miller expressed the fact that he wondered whether of not ALCOA and its subsidiary companies might not have a deep interest in getting rid of waste products from the making of aluminum. Dr. Miller also stated that it was interesting to note that Oscar Ewing, who headed up the Federal Security Administration (at the time the parent organization for the U.S. Public Health Service) was connected with the legal firm of Hubbard, Hill and Ewin, who also represent ALCOA. [Later, dentists who opposed administration of toxic fluorides to patients were censured or lost their membership to the ADA (beginning around 1960) scientists who came out with evidence of fluorides dangerous nature were personality and publically denegrated by the ADA and USPHS, and the research (often far better and more rigourous) was portrayed by the ADA and USPHS as being faulty or irrelevant those who opposed fluoride could not get or keep USPHS grants public health officials who disagreed lost their jobs. Meanwhile, the ADA, USPHS and fluoride producing industry continued in the conspiracy to defraud the public by claiming fluoridation was “absolutely safe”. It is estimated that since the time fluorides have been added to the food, water and air in the early 20th century, over 130 million Americans have suffered chronic fluoride poisoning, accelerated aging and degenerative disease – all due to fluoride products which they are encouraged to consume. It continues, despite the evidence, because fluorides also are behavior modifiers for the population – chemical mind control with built-in money-making degenerative capabilities.]
1952 82nd Congress, 2nd Session, Hearings of the Select Committee to Investigate Use of Chemicals in Food and Cosmetics. Dr. Miller “The US Dental Assn made some examination and recommended to the farmers that fluorine not be added to the water of pregnant sows because it did something to the pigs that were unborn” Dr. Porterfield “There is more money available for matters that have economic value than there is for health.”
1953 Dr. Max Ginns of Worchester, Massachusetts, circulates a petition against water fluoridation, signed by 119 dentists and 59 medical doctors who oppose the use of fluorides. Ginns was dropped from the state dental society in 1961 because of this effort.
1953 It is learned by Miss Florence Birmingham, who testified before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce hearings on the fluoridation of water, that the state of Massachusetts has been doing fluoride experiments at state institutions for the feebleminded, including Wrentham, Fernald and Belchertown on the orders of the state health department. All of this a clear violation of the Nuremberg Pact.
1953 The May 14, 1953 issue of the AMA publication Todays Health contains an editorial in which it is stated, “Because the matter of water fluoridation is so exclusively a dental project, no experimental work has been carried out on this by medical professions. It is our understanding that this matter has been gone into extensively by the American Dental Association…”
1954 Charles E. Perkins, the scientist sent by the U.S. to Germany after World War II to supervise the breakup of I.G. Farben, states, “the real purpose behind water fluoridation is to reduce the resistence of the masses to domination and control, and loss of liberty.”
1954 Denver begins fluoridation of its public water supplies.
1954 A study is published which links fluorides and the development of cancer in animals. Ref: A Taylor, “Sodium Fluoride in the Drinking Water of Mice”,Dental Digest, Vol 60, pp170-172.
1954 C.E.Perkins, I.G.Farben chemist, admits fluoride is to reduce resistance in people to authority.
1954 In 1954, the Christian Science Monitor surveyed all 81 Nobel Prize winners in the fields of chemistry, medicine and physiology on their opinion regarding water fluoridation. Seventy-nine percent failed to endorse water fluoridation, which the promoters claim is endorsed by all “reputable” scientists.
1955 An Oregon Federal Court tries the case of Martin v. Reynolds Metals, in which the Martin farm had been contaminated by fluorides from the aluminum plant. ALCOA and six other metals and chemical companies join Reynolds as “friends of the court” to get the decision reversed when the court finds in favor of the Martins. The Reynolds attorney contends “if allowed to stand, the verdict would become a ruling case, making every aluminum and chemical plant liable to damage claims from fluoride and heavy metal pollution simply by operating. Despite all this, the Martins won, and Reynolds finally made the case moot by buying the Martin’s ranch for a large sum.
1955 Dr. Heinrich Hornung, a German health officer and one of Europes most dedicated advocates of water fluoridation, comes to the U.S. in an attempt to refute evidence of fluoride toxicity.
1955 From 1955 to 1957, K.K. Paluev, a brilliant General Electric Company research and development engineer, was the first to point out that the statistics relative to the studies done in Grand Rapids, Michigan Newburgh, New York and other cities touted as “reducing decay by 65%” those promoting fluoridation show a delay in eruption of teeth, due to the fluoridation, and that the claimed percent reduction in tooth decay” were obtained partially by tabulating unerupted teeth as “sound” teeth. According to a statistical analysis later in 1959, paid for by the University of Melbourne, every fluoridation experiment done, as far as statistics are concerned, abound in contridictions, discrepancies, and omissions of pertinent data, and lack of adequate controls. (Fluoridation Errors And Omissions in Experimental Trials, by Philip R.N. Sutton, D.D.Sc., L.D.S. (Senior Research Fellow, Department of Oral Medicine and Surgery, Dental School, University of Melbourne, in collaboration with Sir Arthut B.P. Amies, Dean of the Dental School, University of Melbourne, Australia). In other words, every experimental trial in the world claimed to justify the belief that fluorides prevent dental caries is fraudulent, and can be proved fraudulent. For extreme detail on this matter, consult “The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation”, by Philip R. Sutton, 1996, Kurunda Pty, Ltd, P.O. Box 22, Lorne, Australia 3232. ISBN 0-949491-12-8.
1955 Fluoride toothpaste is marketed with the warning that “fluoridated toothpaste should not be used where the water supply is fluoridated.” A later decision stipulated that “children under 6 should not use Crest”. Both warnings were instituted by the Public Health Service, but in 1958 both regulations were abandoned, even though no research was available to show that the fluoride overdose hazard no longer existed.
1955 Dr. William Wolf, a clinical professor at New York University School of Dentistry, observes four cases of poisoning from drinking fluoridated water. After verifying the diagnosis, he warns colleagues. The Dean of the University then informs him that his teaching services will no longer be required. Wolf informs the Dean that he will go public with this, and the Dean dropps the matter.
1956 Maurice Natenburg, medical writer and managing editor of Regent House, publishes a pamphlet entitled The Fluoride Curtain, in which he states “The AMA endorsed fluoridation just after their successful fight against an Ewing-sponsored bill to introduce socialized medicine in the United States. The AMA made a special assessment on its members, spending some $3 million in the battle to defeat the bill. After the battle was over, the AMA suddenly saw the ‘merits’ of water fluoridation.” See 1961 AMA disapproval of fluoridation.
1956 March 1956 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association, H.C. Hodge remarks, “skeletal deposition of fluoride is a continuing process in which a considerable portion of the ingested fluoride, perhaps 25 to 50%, is deposited in the skeleton.”
1956 The final report of the Newburg, New York demonstration project is published in the Journal of the American Dental Association, concluding that “small concentrations” of fluoride were safe for U.S. citizens. The biological “proof”, based on work performed at the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, was delivered by Dr. Hodge.
1956 Ionel Rapaport, French endocrinologist at the Psychiatric Institute of the University of Wisconsin, ascertains the birthplace of all mongoloid children in Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Illinois, and grouped them together according to the published fluoride content of the municipal drinking water. Tabulating the 687 urban cases, he finds a two-fold statistically significant greater prevalence or risk of mongoloid births in communities with 1 ppm or more in the water. Using Van Valens formula reveals a combined statistical probability of less that 1 in 125,000 that the correlations from all four states are due to chance. The incidence of the birth defect increases as the fluoride content of the water increases. This is the only study of its kind to include maternal data. See 1959, second study on Down’s Syndrome and fluoridated areas). [Bulletin of the Academy of National Medicine, Paris, Vol 140, pp.529-531].
1956 American Psychoanalytical Association study on sleep disturbances was convened, showing how the profession responded to various neurological disturbances emerging in society. Since the connection between changes in brain chemistry and external substances had been replaced by psychology, it made it extremely difficult (according to Gershwind in 1982) to accept that there are instances in which difficulties in emotional adjustment are the primary result of alterations in the brain.
1957 The American Medical Association announces “no evidence has been found since the 1951 statement to prove fluoridated water at the recommended concentration of fluoride is harmful to the general health.”. See JAMA Medical Literature, 1951.
1957 Feltman and Kosel find that 34 of 38 leading Vitamin and mineral supplements have as much as 286 micrograms of fluoride in them. [Feltman R., et al, “Fluoride in Pharmaceutical Preparations”, NorthWest Medicine, Vol 55, pp.663-1664, June 1956.]
1957 The FDA tolerance for insect sprays on 60 fruits and vegetables allows 7 ppm fluorides. DeEds writes, ” it is a well-established fact that chronic intoxication may manifest itself in man as recognized abnormalities only after constant, or frequent exposure to fluorides. ” [ Official FDA Tolerances for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals, National Agricultural Chemicals Assn News and Pesticide Review, Vol 15, pp.5-14, May 1957 ].
1957 Controversial statement from Oliver Kenneth Goff, June 22, 1957, a member of the Communist Party and the Young Communist League from May 2, 1936 to October 9, 1939, reveals he testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1939, as to the implementation of the fluoridation of American public water supplies in the same way they used it as a brain tranquillizer at Soviet prison camps. Goff reflected that the Party leaders felt that it would bring about lethargy in the U.S, and keep the public docile during a steady encroachment of Communism. Also discussed, says Goff, was keeping a store of deadly fluoride near the water supplies where during a time of revolt it could be dumped wholesale into the water supply and either kill off the populace, or threaten them with liquidation, so that they would surrender to obtain fresh water. (See Ref#64,65). Sworn statement in Arapahoe Country, Colorado, notarized. (Ref: Fluoridation, by Isabel Jansen, R.N, 1990, ISBN 0-932298-73-7, page 128, Tri-State Press, Antigo, Wisconsin 54409)
1957 An experiment is done at the Montreal Neurological Institute by William Scoville and Brenda Miller removed the hippocampus from a man suffering from epilepsy in an attempt to stop the attacks. (See 1994 scientific report on the effect of sodium fluoride on the brain and behavior, and the hippocampus). The subject in this historical case, H.M., lost the ability to remember recent events. Almost 28 years after the operation, for H.M. a typical day’s activities included doing crossword puzzles and watching television, although he does not remember where he lives, who cares for him, or what he ate at his last meal. (Neurobiology, 1994)
1957 In a 1957 AMA report it was stated ” It is too early to know what the effects of artificial fluoridation will be. What is reported as a reduction in dental decay may in fact be a delay in recognition of decay, and reasons given for believing that artificially fluoridated water will have the same effects as water with natural fluoride are not valid.”
1957 The September 1957 issue of Northwest Medicine featured an article by Thomas E. Douglas, M.D., entitled “Fluoride Dentifrice and Stomatitis”, where Dr. Douglas explains his puzzlement over the increasing frequency of patients with oral lesions. He discovered that all patients with lesions used fluoridated toothpaste.
1957 Alcoa Aluminum Company announces the sale of sodium fluoride (rat poison) directly to municipalities for fluoridation of drinking water. When it became obvious that phosphate fertilizer companies could sell toxic fluorides cheaper, Alcoa was priced out of the fluoride dumping market.
1957 Records for New Britain, Connecticut (where the use of industrial fluorides had been in use for 6 years) showed that some of the children’s teeth had been damaged beyond repair where the water is fluoridated, even when the percentage of industrial fluorine is kept at or below 1 ppm, mottling is produced in 10-15% of the children examined. Mottled teeth are teeth showing symptoms of fluorosis, and the enamel of mottled teeth is brittle and subject to mechanical injury which is difficult or impossible to repair.
1958 In April 1958, the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, with more than 15,000 members, most of whom are also members of the American Medical Association, pass a resolution in opposition to fluoridation, which states “The Association condemns the addition of any substance to the public water supply for the purpose of affecting the bodily or mental function of the consumer.”
1958 Dr. F.J. Stare of Harvard University gives a speech in Needham, Massachusetts, promoting “fluoride as a nutrient”, citing the research done by Maurer and Day. Dr. Fred Exner takes him to task, pointing out that the study by Maurer and Day was called “The Non-Essentiality of Fluoride in Nutrition”, and that animals fed a fluoride-poor diet could produce no symptoms of “fluoride deficiency”. Journal of Nutrition, 62, 561-573,1957. Dr. Stares’ fraudulent claims are still be quoted as ‘facts”, although he recanted his claim that “fluorides will benefit or cure bone disease” in the April 6, 1972 Boston Herald Traveler.
1958 Fluoridation is introduced experimentally in the West German town of Kassel by special dispensation of the Minister of Health. The fluoridation plant would be taken out of service in April 1, 1971 as a result of legal and health considerations.
1958 Renowned geneticist H.J. Muller reveals that fluorides produce primary damage by injuring the genetic material of the cells they enter. [Muller, Symposium on Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis: “Do Air Pollutants Act as Mutagens?”, Aspen, Colorado, June 13-15, 1958]
1958 In October 1958, Dr. J.F. Montague, a medical doctor, published material reflecting his growing concern over fluoridation in the Journal of the International College of Surgeons connecting the presence of fluorine in the human body to cancer. Also in 1958, an interesting piece of work was done by Dr. James Kerwin, a dentist, in which it was shown that the simultaneous presence of fluorine and strontium 90 in the human body may result in a greater accumulation of both substances in which compounds like strontium fluoride are formed. Because of the low solubility of these substances, the body has a very hard time getting rid of them. His report was published in Dental Digest in February 1959.
1958 The World Health Organzation (WHO) establishes an Expert Committee in Geneva to study fluoridation. At least 5 out of 7 members of the commitee had promoted fluoridation in their respective countries. [The deck was already stacked]. Two well-known American proponents were Dr. J.W. Knutson and Professor H.C. Hodge. Hodge had some of his research financed by the Atomic Energy Commission, which was confronted with serious fluoride disposal problems from uranium processing. Another member promoting fluoridation, Professor Yngve Ericsson from Sweden, a prominent advocate of fluoridation in Europe, was the recipient of a U.S. Public Health Service grant and received royalties from Sweden’s toothpaste industry. Research documenting poisoning from fluoridated water was rejected. See 1969, WHO Endorsement of fluorides]
1959 Rapaport does a second study on fluoridation and birth defects in Illinois from 1950 to 1956. The study is reported in 1959. The data indicated a highly significant association between the frequency of Down’s Syndrome and the fluoride content of the mother’s drinking water.
1959 In the report of the proceedings of the 3rd Medical-Dental Conference on the Evaluation of Fluoridation, held on March 7, 1959 in New York City, the committee concluded that “It is apparent that the practice of fluoridation is not the simple is not the simple, trustworthy procedure that the promoting authorities have given the profession and the public to believe. Added to the lack of control of fluorides at the consumers tap are these major uncertainties: the gross variation in individual water consumption, the varied intake of fluorides in food and the fluoride intake from atmospheric and occupational exposure. These unpredictable issues make meaningless any talk about “controlled individual fluorine intake.” Most, if not all of this research has been buried by the authorities, who maintain glibly that “fluoride compounds are safe in the water supply”. Willfull criminal negligence and conspiracy.
1959 Fluorides were used as an enzyme inhibitor in a study by J.D. Ebert that was published in 1959 on the metabolic pathways by which organs in an embryo are formed. In low concentrations, he found that sodium fluoride blocked almost completely the regions destined to form muscle, primarily affecting the heart muscle. In higher concentrations, it caused the entire embryo to disintegrate in a clear-cut pattern, starting with the heart-forming region.
1959 As early as 1959, the knowledge existed that the presence of fluoride in human bodies hastens the absorption of radioactive substances present in the environment. In a report to the Atomic Energy Commission’s Division of Biology and Medicine entitled “The Metabolism of Alkaline Earth Metals by Bone” by F.W. Lengemann, professor of chemistry at the University of Tennessee on March 23, 1959, it was scientifically shown that the presence of fluorine and other environmental substances such as lead and cyanide in the human body increased the ratio of strontium 90 to calcium in bone – caused the body to absorb radioactives.
1959 In 1959, the Ontario Minister of Health, Dr. Dymond, announced that no further fluoridation would be permitted there, because “no one knows for sure what the effect is to persons given fluoride throughout a lifetime.”
1959 In research conducted on the incidence of Mongolism in cities in Wisconsin, Illinois and the Dakotas published in 1959 in the official publication of the French Academy of Medicine, it was found that as the percentage of fluorides in the water rose, there was a parallel rise in the incidence of Mongoloid births the age of the mothers giving birth to Mongoloid babies also declined with rising fluoride levels. It is interesting that in the first three years of fluoridation, New Britain, Connecticut experienced a 150% rise in still births.
1960 In 1960, the American Dental Association issued a pamphlet for public consumption called Fluoridation Facts: Answers to Criticisms of Fluoridation. In defense of the use of toxic fluoride compounds in public water supplies (which is a grievous crime against humanity, since it means mandated involuntary public medication), they used the logic that “people have been known to live to a ripe old age” in areas where the water supply is fluoridated. Unfortunately, they neglected to mention that the addition of fluoride to the water supply correlated directly with the number of still births, mongoloid children, brittle teeth and enlarged dental root structures, adverse spinal conditions, osteomalacia (softening of the bones) and osteoporosis (abnormally porous and spaced structure inside bone) in the medicated population as opposed to control populations that were unmedicated. People die young “at a ripe old age”.
1960 A study is done in Japan that involved examination of fluoride deposition in the fetuses of dogs. It was found that the quantity of deposited fluorine was especially large in bones, largest in the cranial bone as well as the lower leg bone. The quantity of fluorine deposition was parallel with the progression of the calcification. They also proved that the deposit of fluorine on teeth and bones starts through the placenta as early as the embryo period, and then takes place through the mothers milk through the infancy period, and through food, as well as directly through the inside of the oral cavity. As fluorine is a known active enzyme poison, it is known to affect cell division (mitotic) in the fetus, resulting in anatomical anomalies (teratism).
1960 The commitee on fluoride meets in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Dr. G.E. Hall guides the deliberations. His daughter was employed by an aluminum corporation with fluoride pollution problems, he was himself serving as honorary advisory director for a leading fluoridation promotion organization, and his university (University of Western Toronto) was the recipient of grants from the U.S. Public Health Service. (three conflicts of interest). Fluoridation of all public water supplies in Canada was advocated.
1960 In San Francisco on November 29, 1960 a 200-foot portion of a 50-foot wide street collapsed after an almost-new water main burst. After an analysis of the pipe by Griffin-Hasson laboratories in Los Angeles, it was discovered that fluoridation chemicals had corroded the pipe, which showed a fluoride concentration of 22,000 ppm on the pipe.
1961 Sweden’s Supreme Court declared fluoridation illegal.
1961 The legal department of the American Medical Association issues a letter stating, “The AMA does not engage in the approval, endorsement, guarantee or acceptance of unfluoridated water or fluoridated water.”
1961 In Great Britain, Dr. R.A.Holman of the Royal Institute of Pathology discussed fluoride poisoning in an article in the April 15, 1961 issue of the British Medical Journal. He noted that the long-term effects of sodium fluoride ingestion needed much more investigation, and continued, “Fluoride is a well-known inhibitor of several enzyme systems, and can form spectroscopically recognizable compounds with the enzyme catalase, resulting in its inhibition. Catalase poisoning has been linked with the development of viruses and the causation of a number of diseases, including cancer. Many observers have suggested that the agents (fluorides and other toxic environmental substances) which decrease the catalase the cells may predispose those cells to tumor formation. Voisin has said, “the method most likely to solve the problem of cancer is to ask why the cancer cell is lacking in catalase and try to prevent its impoverishment from taking place.
1962 A study in Portugal revealed that fluoride at 1ppm concentration caused a 25% decrease in activitiy of the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase in liver tissue, both in test tubes and in animal experiments. In vivo, fluoride at 1ppm inhibited liver activity by 6.4 percent. In kidneys this enzyme activity was reduced by 47.8 percent by fluoride at 1ppm in drinking water. The authors concluded, “significant enzyme inhibition due to prolonged fluoride administration demonstrates the impairment of an important step in cellular metabolism”. (Sullivan, W.D.,S.J., and Von Knobeledorff, A.J., Broteria Serie de Ciencias Naturais, Lisbon, 21, No.1, 1962).
1962 Dr. John Knutson of the U.S. Public Health Service examines cancer death rates following the fluoridation of the public water supplies of Grand Rapids, Michigan. He found a 22% increase in cancer death rates, contrasted to the unfluoridated control city of Muskegon, itself fluoridated 5 years into the year test” in order to conceal the greater caries prevalence in Grand Rapids. Ref: Fluoride Drinking Waters p.213 (1962).
1962 According to the 1962 Revision of Drinking Water Standads, the safety factor for fluoride in drinking water was listed as “zero”. (Water and Its Impurities, Thomas Camp: Reinhold, New York). According to the author, “the threshold for mottled enamel overlaps the recommended concentration for artificial fluoridation”.
1962 According to the November 1962 Journal of the American Dental Association, from 10% to 20% of the children in fluoridated Grand Rapids, Michigan, developed mottled or fluorosed teeth.
1962 Noted cancer researcher Dr. Ludwig Gross, whose work on leukemia is invaluable in cancer research and whose findings prompted a governmental crash program, was put on report after writing: “The plain fact is that fluoride is an insidious poison – harmful, toxic, and cumulative in its effects, even when ingested in minimal amount, will remain unchanged no matter how many times it will be repeated in print that ‘fluoridation of the water supply is safe'”. This ‘defection’ was pointed out to Dr. Gross’ superiors in the US Public Health Service. However, a Veterans Administration official replied on September 24, 1962: “Dr. Gross is free to offer his opinion in any relation he may desire, but he does not speak for the Veterans Administration on the subject of fluoridation. This agency is not opposed to the fluoridation of public water supplies.”
1963 American Academy of Sciences study shows low fluoride levels increase tumors.
1963 A study is published which links fluorides and development of cancer in animals. Ref: Irwin Herskowitz and Isabel Norton “Increased Incidence of Melanotic Tumors…Following Treatment with Sodium Fluoride”, Genetics, Vol 48, pp307-310.
1963 J.R. Shapiro, M.D., National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, in the October 31, 1963 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, observed that the concept of extending low-dose fluoride “currently employed in preventing dental caries in children ‘to include adults in the hope of preventing future osteoporosis’ is largely unsupported by available data”. See 1971.
1964 The Ministry of the Interior of Denmark issues a public announcement “fluoridation of public water supplies as well as of all consumables is prohibited”. Denmark bans fluoride supplements in January 1964.
1964 As of April 1964, accounts in local newspapers showed that 200 cities had discontinued fluoridatio after they found that fluoridation did cause harmful effects to humans, animals and fish that it did corrode plumbing and that the cost was more than stated by proponents.
1964 A report in the British Dental Journal carried in the Philadelphia Bulletin on November 8, 1964, stated that a four-year experiment involving 1,000 English children had been abandoned because no significant differences were found in terms of caries between fluoride toothpastes and non-fluoridated ones. The British test was an independent trial by university professors, and all statistics were treated by independent statisticians. In contrast, in the United States, those experimental trials which used statistics featured statistical work done by the toothpaste manufacturers or by firms which were paid by the manufacturers, or by dental organizations. Such experiments are invalid.
1964 Scientific information is published on the Paradoxical Effect of the biological effect of chemical toxins, in an article by Shatz et al. That is the response increases with time and then diminishes with even higher doses. In other words there is not a linear relationship between dose and effect. This means that there is no threshold below which fluorides and radiation, for example, are harmless. This also applies to the electromagnetic effects on human biology. [Shatz, A., et al, “The Occurrence and Importance of Paradoxical Concentration Effects on Biological Systems”, Compost Science, Vol 5, p.22-30, Spring 1964 Shatz, A., “Low Level Fluoridation and Low-Level Radiation – Two Case Histories of Misconduct of Science”, by A. Schatz, Ph.D, Philadelphia, 1996]
1965 The November 1965 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association, contains a section listing the names of individuals who oppose fluoridation, along with denigrating information, charging that people are distributing leaflets misrepresenting sodium fluoride as rat poison … which of course it is.
1965 The President’s Science Advisory Commitee designates fluoride as “a highest priority pollutant”. See 1967.
1965 A study is published which links fluorides to cancer in animals. Ref: A. Taylor and N.C.Taylor, “Effect of Fluoride on Tumor Growth”, Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol 65, pp252-255.
1965 Researchers at the University of Texas, Drs.Alfred and Nell Taylor, find that fluoride in the drinking water at levels between 0.5 and 1.0 ppm increased tumor growth rate in cancer-prone mice by 15-25%, inhibiting the efforts of the immune system to attack tumors.
1965 When asked about the advisability of adding sodium fluoride to table salt, the FDA on July 12, 1965 answered, “We would consider the addition of sodium fluoride to table salt as a violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.”
1966 The National Health Federation publishes a book entitled Fluoridation, in which it is reported “the effect on fluorides on trout was toxic. In water samples with fluoride levels between 0.5 and 4.6 ppm from airborn fumes, trout eggs were worthless…there were malformations … loss of adult fish was very great.” Based on August 25, 1961 case in which the Meader Hatchery near Pocatello, Idaho, obtained a judgment in the U.S. Court of Appeals against the Simplot Company, which was releasing airborn fluorides, polluting fish production.
1966 A study at Texas A&M University demonstrates that fluoride causes genetic damage to onions and tomatos.
1966 Scientific report reveals that “at concentrations too low to cause visible tissue injury, fluorides induce significant mitotic and meiotic chromosome alterations in tomato plants.” [Mohamed, A.H.,et al, “Cytological Effects of Hydrogen Fluoride on Tomato Chromosomes” Canadian Journal of Genetic Cytology, Vol 8, p.575-583,1966]
1966 The International Society for Research on Nutrition, Vital Substances and the Diseases of Civilization (founded by Dr. Albert Schweitzer in 1954) approves a strong resolution (No.39) advising local and state governments against fluoridation. The resolution stated, among other things, that “fluoride is an enzyme poison which can cause irreversable and unpredictable diseases.” The action is supported by more than 98 percent of the Society’s 400-member Scientific Counsil, of which more than half hold appointments in major world academic institutions in over 75 countries. [ Fluoridation and Truth Decay, 1974, Caldwell, p.285 ]. After Schweitzers death, Linus Pauling attempts to get the Society to reverse its position on fluorides, but the Society responded by reaffirming its antifluoridation position in two succeeding years. Despite this effort by hundreds of world scientists not beholding to the USPHS for grant money, the U.S. Public Health Service continued its fluoridation propaganda on American citizens.
1966 In May 1966, the Los Angeles Water and Power Department took it upon itself to call a meeting in an effort to get Los Angeles water fluoridated. The effort ended when legal counsel informed the water department that they had no jurisdiction over fluoridation. Word of the meeting brought throngs of people protesting the addition of toxic fluorides to the water supply. After the meetings ended, the City Council then called for a fluoridation hearing to begin on July 21, 1966 at which councilman Tom Bradley (later mayor of Los Angeles) was to introduce the fluoridation resolution. Dr. Louis Bullock, president of the Los Angeles branch of the American Cancer Society touted the new cancer drug 5-Fluoracil as “one of the most effective drugs used to treat and control cancer”, stating that they ‘safely’ gave cancer patients 150 to 500 mg of fluoride a day”, and that “it strengthened the bones”. [Yet, the 1965 Modern Drig Encyclopedia and Therapeutic Index Pharmaceuticals, Biologicals and Allergens contains a three-column listing of disasterous effects from 5-Fluoracil, one of them being “fatalities may be encountered occasionally in patients in relatively good condition”. In March 31, 1972, the Los Angeles Herald Examiner headlined a story “Scientist Hots Cancer Drug ‘Overkill’ “, which stated that 5-Fluoracil as a cancer treatment represents a case of classic overkill which does more harm than the cancer itself.” In other words, Bullock was either naive or he lied at the July 21, 1966 meeting ]. See 1969 LA Times.
1966 In February 1966, Dr. Robert Felix, former Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, addresses a fluoridation conference of 500 national leaders. He doesn’t speak of the dental health of children, but instead about the “mental health of opponents of fluoridation”. In his speech, “The Care and Handling of Extremists”, Dr. Felix offered the “fact” that “all opponents of fluoridation are mentally deranged, one way or another”. He instructed proponents of fluoridation on “how to recognize and cope with the various categories of opponents”. The Proceedings of this mad Symposium can be found in the February 10th and 14th, 1966 issue of the Congressional Record. Dr. Arthur Fleming, former Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, was at the meeting. He suggested that “we need a 365-day-a-year educational program for schools”, and suggested that “students might go home and talk fluoridation up at the dinner table”. Programs in schools were then implemented where children were used as shills and messengers of propaganda for fluoridation. Several superintendents of schools in the Los Angeles area indicated that they would not take part in such a program.
1966 Testimony presented by John J. Miller, Ph.D, Chicago, Illinois at fluoridation hearings in San Jose, California on March 11, 1966, included the following statement: “Fluoride acts to tie up magnesium – forming magnesium fluoride – an insoluble compound which thus prevents the essential enzyme from using magnesium. As a result, mental processes are seriously interfered with, and nerve reactions throughout the body depressed … this sort of toxicity is shown by research to play a role in epileptic seizures and other convulsions.” [Ref: Fluoridation and Truth Decay, 1974, p.93]
1966 On April 22, 1966, Dr. F.J. McClure of the National Institute of Dental Research stated that according to their studies, “neither fluoridated toothpaste not topical application with stannous fluoride is found to be of benefit in reducing the incidence of children’s cavities”.
1966 The Federal Drug Administration bans fluoride pills for pregnant women in October 1966, according to Drug News Weekly. The FDA ban was accompanied by the statement that “fluorides use did not impart stronger teeth or prevent tooth decay in the newborn” and that “there is scientific debate as to whether fluorides might aggrevate mental retardation and Mongolism in the offspring”. Prior to this ban, millions of fluoride supplement tablets were used by pregnant women on recommendation of the Public Health Service and promoters of fluoridation.
1967 Fluoride pills are generally available free to children from dentists. See 1971.
1967 The U.S. Surgeon General, testifying before the Senate Subcommittee on Air Pollution and Water Pollution, declares that an investigation of environmental fluoride was urgent “to determine whether health is indeed threatened and what control measures may be necessary.”
1967 An FDA statement dated June 19, 1967, informed that “the treatment of community water supplies is not subject to regulations under laws administered by the Food and Drug Administration, nor by any other Federal Agency. It is strictly a matter for decision by the community officials or under local ordinances.”
1967 The July 1967 Annals of Allergy reported dermatitis and gastro-intestinal conditions from fluoridated toothpaste and headaches, fever, and blood in stools from Tri-Vi-Flor given to children.
1968 In the January 1968 issue of the Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society, Dr. C.C. Bass writes, “I now believe that continued ingestion of fluoride actually increases the activity of the already existing periodontoclasia.”
1968 Emmanuel Landau, Ph.D., Statistical Advisor for the Center of Air Pollution Control, admits that fluoride pollution poses a potential danger to humans, saying “anything we don’t know about constitutes a potential hazard. We know almost nothing about fluoride polluton. There is a great need for more research.” [Note: Here we see the repeated lie that “little is known about fluoride pollution”, despite the fact that there are probably more studies and more articles written on fluoride toxicity than on any other poison.]
1968 A study at the University of Missouri shows that fluoride causes genetic damage to tomatoes.
1968 The U.S. Department of Health Educationa and Welfare, in a May 31, 1968 letter to Congressman William C. Kramer, states, “The 1ppm fluoride in drinking water poses no safety problem if it is the only source of fluorides”. However, American and Canadian research alone shows that water fluoridation accounts for only part of the daily fluoride consumption.
1968 In the October 1968 issue of the Journal of the Indiana Dental Association, Dr. J.C. Muhler, who holds patents on the fluoride topical paste used in school “brush-ins”, reported 11 cases of gum damage.
1968 Scientists at the University of Holland, Drs. Mukherjee and Sobels, find that fluorides increase the frequency of genetic damage in sperm cells of lab animals exposed to X-rays. Fluorides inhibited the repair of DNA damaged by radiation.
1968 For one year, the CIA begins chemical warfare experiments relative to the poisoning of water systems by injecting a chemical substance into the water supply of the FDA building in Washington.
1968 The Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. VI, boasted: “Puerto Rico – First to Enact Fluoridation Law”. Some cities in Puerto Rico were fluoridated in 1954, before any data were in on the so-called year experiment” in the continental United States. A report of the condition of the teeth of children in PR was made by Dr. U.L. Monteleone of Allentown, Pennsylvania, who visited PR. According to Dr. Monteleone in May 1969, the children in PR had rampant dental decay, rampant malocclusion and rampant fluorosis. Monteleone was suspended for making the report. The June 1968 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported similar findings on the children in fluoridated Puerto Rico: “Dental caries are common … dental fluorosis was particularly prevalent among school and adolescent boys in the 10-14 year old age group.”
1968 Thomas R. Camp, Minority Report, Legislative Study Commission, 1968: “In view of the facts, it is recommended that legislation be passed in Massachusetts prohibiting the sale of fluorides for human ingestion whether in the drinking water, food or tablets.”
1969 In the May 3, 1969 issue of the Washington Post, Nobel Laureate Dr. Joshua Lederberg, Genetics Department, Stanford University School of Medicine, says he would question those who claim fluoridation is “absolutely safe”.
1969 The February 4, 1969 Los Angeles Times publishes a news story entitled “Expert estimates $12 billion in 30 years will be saved if water is fluoridated”, authored by the Times Medical writer, Harry Nelson, quoting Dr. William Burton, Chief, Division of Health, State Department of Public Health. The material was a total fabrication.
1969 The World Health Organization endorses fluoridation of water supplies on July 23, 1969, despite cautions from G.Penso of the Italian delegation, who warned about “possible genetic damage to future generations”. During the final hours of the session, when only 45 of the 1,000 delegates from 131 countries were still present, all bills that had not been accepted, including the one on fluorides, were collected and voted upon (no quorum, just like the Federal Reserve Bill in 1913), including the statement on fluoridation. The resolution urged member states to “examine the possibility of introducing fluoridation” wherew “fluoride intake is below optimum levels”. [WHO Chronicles, Vol 23, p.512, 1969]
1969 The July 7, 1969 issue of the Columbus Citizen-Journal, Ohio, contained an article entitled “The Costs of Fluoridating Water”, in which the following facts were published follow a one year review of world literature on fluoridation completed in June 1969: Fluoride increases the incidence of mongolism, depresses the growth rate of human cells in culture, causes dermatitis, affects thyroid function, alters the concentration of metabolites in blood and urine, inhibits many important enzymes, affects reproduction, may incorporate itself into naturally occurring compounds to form others, is capable of producing cancer and giving rise to deformed babies, reduces fertility in female rats by more than 60 percent, and mimics the effects of some hormones – disturbing the hormonal balance.”
1969 By 1969, the fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 225 per 100,000 people, while non-fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 195 per 100,000. The data indicates a fluoride-linked increase of cancer of 10% in only 13-17 years. These figures were checked and confirmed in 1979 by the United States National Cancer Institute. The increase in cancer death observed in fluoridated cities occurred primarily in people ages 45 and over this fact is explainable because both the immune system and the normal DNA repair process (the two major defense systems against cancer) decline with age.
1970 In the October 1, 1970 Los Angeles Times, it was reported that the California State Board of health threatened to revoke the water license in San Gabriel if they continued to dispense water with 2ppm fluoride.
1970 A study at the University of Missouri demonstrates that fluoride causes genetic damage to corn and fruit flies.
1970 A spokesman for Reynolds Aluminum Company is quoted in the April 1970 Environmental Handbook Prepared for the First National Environmental Teach-In as stating that “it is cheaper to pay fines for polluting the environment than to control fluorides” (pay for the destruction of fluoride hazardous wastes).
1970 Dr. John D. Erickson of the CDC examined the cancer death rates of all U.S. cities with a population of 250,000 or more, and found that people in fluoridated areas experienced an age-sex-race corrected cancer death rate which was 4% higher than that of people in unfluoridated areas. The study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 298, pp 1112-1116, 1978, eight years later.
1970 Psychologist James V. McConnel writes in Psychology Today that, ” the day has come when we can combine sensory deprivation with drugs, hypnosis and astute manipulation of reward and punishment to gain almost complete control over individual behavior…we should reshape society so that we all would be trained from birth… no one owns his own personality.”
1970 The U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service releases Handbook No. 380, which summarizes some of the devastating effects of fluoride pollution: “A literature review was presented to indicate that fluoride was one of the industrial poisons that lowered the immunobiological response of man, pigeons, rabbits and other animals against certain diseases, such as typhoid fever, anthrax, tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus (p.52: Ref: Fridlyland, I.G.,1959, The Effect of Industrial Poisons on the Immunological State of the Organism, Gigiena i Sanitariya 24 (8): 55-61 (p.56).
1970 The 1970 World Health Organization book Flurodes and Human Health contained an article written by Dr. P. Venkateswarlu entitled “Effects on Body Fluids and Soft Tissues”, which stated “Recently, the development of fairly dependable micromethods for fluoride determination and the availabilty of radiofluoride have given impetus to the study of fluoride metabolism in the soft tissues and body fluids.”
1971 A study at Texas A&M University demonstrates that fluoride causes genetic damage to fruit flies. The study is repeated in 1973.
1971 An article in the scientific journal Nature revealed a study done by D.B. Ferguson of the University of Manchester Medical School which showed that the activity of the human serum enzyme alkaline phosphatase is measureably reduced by either dietary fluoride or fluoridated drinking water. According the Dr. Ferguson, “It can no longer be said that low levels of fluoride do not affect in vivo enzyme activity in man.” (Nature, Vol. 231, pp.159-160, June 2, 1971).
1971 The November 12, 1971 Framingham, Massachusetts News Local carried an announcement from the board of health. Fluoridation was stopped in order to cure a green hair problem which had cropped up, due to the fluoridation chemicals leaching out copper from the pipes. It would be necessary to add another toxic chemical, sodium hydroxide, to counteract the problem.
1971 In the AMA’s Drug Evaluation News, physicians are advised not to give children fluoride and vitamin pills together. [Note: Children do not retain as much fluoride when they are also given essential nutrients such as calcium, which acts as an antidote to fluorides. It leads one to wonder why the AMA would want children to accumulate more fluorides.]
1971 The August 22, 1971 National Enquirer reviews British claims on how the new drug fenfluramine (Fen-Phen) burns up fat and is appropriate for obese people. [In 1997, 26 years later, it is revealed that fenfluramine damages the heart and brain, which might indicate that the original “safety” studies were faked]. Dr. John Sedgewick, one of Britain’s leading authorities on obesity pushes the drug in 1971. The article stated that the fenfluramine pill contains fluoride, and is an amphetamine type of drug which Dr. Sedgewicj intended to request the FDA to approve for sale in the U.S. Whereas Dr. Sedgewick claims that fluoride acts like a sedative, “it is also likely that it causes lack of appetite.” Research performed on farm animals shows that when cows eat fluoride-poisoned forage from industrial sources, nature protects them by curbing their appetite, causing loss of weight. According to an article in the April 15, 1973 Los Angeles Times, fenfluramine caused side effects of drowsiness and stomach/bowel complaints in patients.
1971 A study conducted by Dr.S.H. Cohn and his associates at the Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island (reported in the January 1971 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, concluded that fluorides cannot be considered an effective treatment for osteoporosis.
1971 Germany bans water fluoridation.
1971 The January 15, 1971 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Association states “air pollution damage to agricultural production in the United States in 1967 was estimated at $500 million, and that fluoride damage to livestock and vegetation comprised a substantial part of this damage.”
1971 An 11-member board of the American Academy of Allergies amazingly declares “no evidence of allergy or intolerance to fluorides as used in the fluoridation of communal water supplies.” The statement was requested from the AAA by the U.S. Public Health Service, who was attempting to neutralize reports of fluoride poisoning. None of the scientists at the AAA ever carried out any research on fluorides. After the “statement” the U.S. Public Health Service “awards grants” to four of the scientists on the AAA board amounting to $780,621. Other members of the board had been previous recipients of such grants for research on various phases of allergy. In 1976, the British Royal College of Physicians would refer to the AAA statement (bribed statement) in order to deny reports of fluoride poisoning in England. [ Fluoride, Walbott, 1978, pp.287-288].
1971 In 1971 alone, fluoridated toothpastes added 116,000 pounds of fluoride to the environment.
1971 The Swedish Parliament repeals the country’s fluoridation law on Nov 18, 1971, and in doing so stated “valid evidence to support the claims widely quoted by fluoridation proponenys simply does not exist”. The American news media maintained silence in not reporting this notable event. [Fluoridation and Truth Decay, Caldwell, 1974, p.287 ] See 1961.
1972 Sweden bans water fluoridation.
1972 A scientific study published in the AMA publication Archives of Environmental Health (July 1972) showed “dangerous levels of lead (above 5 percent) in the outer coatings of tubes of Crest, Fresh Breath, Macleans, Craig Martin and Worthmore toothpastes”. The article also stated that “potentially hazardous amounts of lead in the toothpaste itself were found in Crest, Fresh Breath and Worthmore toothpastes”. As expected, toothpaste makers denied these findings, but presented no documentation to justify their denial. These disclosures are additional reasons for attaching little scientific merit to an ADA endorsement, including its endorsement of fluoridation.
1972 Consumer advocate Ralph Nader wrote to chairman Miles Kirkpatrick of the Federal Trade Commission that studies in the United States and England have shown that toothpastes with fluorides leave a brown stain on teeth four times as often as toothpaste without fluoride. In answer to Nader’s question of the efficacy of these fluoridated toothpastes, a spokesman for the FDA answered that his department disallowed any claims a toothpaste “helps harden and strengthen the structure of tooth enamel on contact.”
1972 On February 22, 1972, opponents of water fluoridation in Massachusetts appeared before the Legislative Social Service Committee to speak in favor of a bill asking for an impartial study commission to evaluate the dental and medical effects of fluoridation in communities fluoridated for 10 or more years. However, not suprisingly, dentists and public health officials fought desperately to prevent this bill from appearing before the legislature.
1972 In the Australian Medical Journal, an article by Dr.Stephen Boyd, of the Urban Biology Group, Australian National University, states, “it is important to appreciate that the first symptoms of exposure to many toxic chemicals (see fluorides) are not physiological, but psychological, and include such European Research, Vol 3, No.2, pp99-104, 1981.
1972 The February 24, 1972 issue of the Washington Post featured an article by Jay Mathews, who reported that “Mongolism, thought by doctors to occur in 1 out of 600 births, is today the most common cause of severe mental retardation.”
1972 On May 17, 1972, a letter from the National Institute of Dental Research Director Dr. Samuel Kreshover stated, “Official approval of water fluoridation continues and special health studies beyond those that have already been completed are not contemplated.”
1972 A letter from the Environmental Protection Agency, dated March 31, 1972, announced, “The EPA, in addition to its pollution abatement activities, supports and promotes the fluoridation of public water supplies through its water supply program … this practice has been and is being thoroughly researched and safety is our prime consideration.”
1972 The prestigious journal Science, July 14, 1972, requested doctors “Perform Tests and/or Examinations on People Who Have Shown Sensitivity to Fluorides from Fluoridation”, and to send the results to a Fact Finding Committee in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, chaired by Dr.R.J.H. Mick in Laurel Springs, New Jersey. The project consisted of a double-blind study using the provocative sub-lingual testings with varying dilutions of a fluoride solution up to a concentration of 1 ppm. The project, held at the Red Carpet Inn in Milwaukee on August 5 and 6, 1972, was a ‘continuing study to determine the immediate side effects of individuals extremely sensitive to fluorides’. A number of individuals developed immediate symptoms of headache, burning in the throat, dizziness, nausea and vomiting to test solutions whose concentration were much less than 1 ppm, whereas the placebo (unfluoridated tap water) elicited no reactions.
1973 Russian Research Institute of Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases discovers fluorides cause genetic damage in rats.
1973 A study at the Central Laboratory for Mutagen Testing in West Germany shows that fluorides cause genetic damage to fruit flies.
1973 Netherlands bans water fluoridation on June 22, 1973. Holland’s Supreme Court ruled that “In its judgment, the High Court considered the fluoridating of a public water supply to be a medical measure and outside the purpose of the Dutch waterworks law which obligates a water board to ensure a supply of wholesome drinking water without the addition of any medical substance.”
1973 A study at Texas A&M University shows that fluorides cause genetic damage to barley.
1974 Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons discovers fluoride causes genetic damage, in rodents, sheep and cows.
1974 The Safe Water Drinking Act is passed. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets maximum contamination levels (MCL) for various water pollutants, including sodium fluoride. The EPA sets the fluoride contamination level at an unbelievable 1.4 ppm for “warmer climates” and up to 2.4 ppm for “colder climates”. Furthermore, the American Dental Association begins pressuring the EPA to raise the MCL for fluoride in public water to 8 ppm, when it is fully known that systemic damage occurs below 1 pmm. The former US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop is among those who join the drive to increase the MCL for fluoride, even doing television ads proclaiming that fluoridation was “absolutely safe”. Shown slides of severe fluorosis damage to a childs teeth at 4ppm, ADA spokesperson Lisa Watson maintains that it does “not involve health effects but is only a cosmetic problem”. The National Drinking Water Advisory Council refuses to recommend raising the fluoride MCL, and came close to recommending its lowering, but the EPA farmed out research work to ICAIR Life Systems, which issues a fraudulent report (confirmed by ICAIR employee Dr. John Beaver) that is woven into the US EPA report on fluoride, resulting in the EPA recommendation of MCL for sodium fluoride in public water to be 4 ppm.
1974 Mass fluoride spill in public water system in North Carolina.
1975 Dr. John Yiamouyiannis publishes a preliminary survey which shows that people in fluoridated areas have a higher cancer death rate than those in non-fluoridated areas. The National Cancer Institute attempts to refute the studies. Later in 1975, Yiamouyiannis joins with Dr. Dean Burk, chief chemist of the National Cancer Institute (1939-1974) in performing other studies which are then included in the Congressional Record by Congressman Delaney, who was the original author of the Delaney Amendment, which prohibited the addition of cancer-causing substances to food used for human consumption. Both reports confirmed the existence of a link between fluoridation and cancer. (Note: Obviously Dr. Burk felt free to agree with scientific truth only after his tenure at NCI ended, since his job depended on towing the party line).
1976 Dr. D.W.Allman and co-workers from Indiana University School of Medicine feed animals 1part-per-million (ppm) fluoride and notice the urinary levels and tissue levels of a substance called cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) increased by more than 100%. They also found that in the presence of aluminum in a concentration as small as 20 parts per billion, fluoride is able to cause an even larger increase in cyclic AMP levels. Cyclic AMP inhibits the migration rate of white blood cells, as well as the ability of the white blood cell to destroy pathogenic organisms. Ref: Journal of Dental Research, Vol 55, Sup B, p523, 1976, “Effect of Inorganic Fluoride Salts on Urine and Tissue Cyclic AMP Concentration in Vivo”. (Note: It is no small accident that toothpaste tubes containing fluoride are often made of aluminum, nor is it an accident that aluminum cookware and fluoride use were injected into the population virtually simultaneously.)
1976 A research dentist at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Dr. J. Gabrovsek, recognizes the significance of the effects of fluoride-induced increases in cyclic AMP levels, and the effect this might have on the immune system. (See 1980).
1977 Fluoride Symposium of the 143rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that 0.5mg fluoride supplement tablets were causing dental fluorosis in children.
1977 The Congressional Subcommitee on Intergovernmental Relations convenes two (2) full Congressional Hearings on the subject of fluorides. During the hearing, it was proven that (1) The “scientific efforts” of those promoting fluoridation were fraudulent, and (2) That other existing studies proved beyond a doubt that approximately 10,000 excess cancer deaths per year could be attributed to fluoridation in the United States.
1977 Mass fluoride spill in Marin County California. Ref: San Rafael Ind Journal 11/25
1977 Congressional representative L.H. Fountain, chairman of the 1977 Sub-Committee Hearings on Fluoride, states that “the carcinogenic nature of fluoride remains unanswered” and orders the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS – who is in on the fluoride conspiracy anyway) “to conduct animal studies to see if fluoride causes cancer”. Dr. Herman Kraybill, from the National Cancer Institute (who in 1972 had been chosen by NCI to write a memo saying that fluorides do not cause cancer) was placed in charge of these studies. Kraybill boldly states, “this will be the final study to confirm negativity of fluoride ions in carcinogenesis.” He cites 13 studies having nothing to do with the subject of fluorides and cancer in order to support his claim that “no link between fluorides and cancer existed.” (NCI Director Dr. Arthur Upton later admitted the 13 studies had nothing to do with the subject of the study). (See 1982, 1985,1988) Congressman Fountain showed that Dr. Hoover and other National Cancer Institute officials had purposely withheld information and had purposely sent fraudulent data to professors at Oxford, who published data as their own, defending the use of fluorides.
1977 In 1977, Congressional Hearings were held in which Dr.Yiamouyiannis and Dr.Burk were able to show that the increase in deaths were due to water fluoridation. At the conclusion of the hearings, Representative Fountain and his committee instructed the United States Public Health Service (well known by now for questionable and dangerous medical advisory practices which benefit the medical and pharmaceutical industries) to conduct animal studies to “determine whether or not fluoride causes cancer”. As a result, the USPHS retained Battelle Memorial Institute (also well known for NWO technical activities and is considered by many to be part of the cancer cover-up) to perform a study on mice and rats – unfortunately, rodent physiology differs considerably from humans, making the transfer of data between species relatively meaningless.(See1989,Battelle Study).
1978 Pomeranian Medical Academy in Poland discovers that fluorides cause genetic damage in human blood cells.
1978 Consumer Reports publishes a two part article in July and August 1978 which includes the claim “the simple truth is that there is no ‘scientific controversy over the safety of fluoridation.” Later in 1990, the Technical Director for Consumer Reports disputes the claim, saying “the proponents of fluoridation insist that there are no grounds for controversy at all, and with that I totally disagree. The point is that this is a legitimate scientific controversy.” The technical director in 1990 is Dr.Edward Groth III.
1978 Mass fluoride poisoning in Michigan. Ref: USPHS/CDC, EPI 78-24-2 pp12.
1978 Physicians Desk Reference states “a daily fluoride intake of .5 mg from birth to age three years is recommended.”
1978 The German magazine Stern reports on the Turkish village of Kizilcaoern, where the drinking water contains 5ppm fluorides. All of the children have brown teeth. Women produce dead babies after only four months of pregnancy. All the inhabitants suffer from tremendous premature aging. The same fluoride-related brittle-bone disorders have been observed among people drinking water with as little as 0.7 ppm fluoride.
1978 A court case was won in Pennsylvania that proved fluoridation was harmful and resulted in a ban. It received great publicity, much to the concern of the American Dental Association and the industry. (See 1979)
1979 General research seems to begin in an attempt to understand how fluorides in the body disrupt collagen synthesis.
1979 In order to counteract the tide of truth on fluorides, the American Dental Association (ADA) issues a “white paper” on fluoridation characterizing opponents of putting fluorides in the public water supply as “uninformed, self-styled experts whose qualifications for speaking out on such a scientific issue as fluoridation were practically nonexistent or whose motivation was self-serving.” (Highly ironic, since this is instead the position of the ADA and the medical industrial complex in the first place). In addition, the ADA paper maintained “the lifelong benefits of fluoridation” and encouraged responses to opponents to begin with, “there is no evidence…”, “investigators have observed…”. The ADA recommended that “the advice of behavioral scientists should be sought with regard to rebuttals”. This ADA paper resulted in collusion between the ADA,CDC,EPA,NCHS,NIDR, state dental societies and directors to “identify those communities where the timing is favorable”. A planning commitee was formed to plan a symposium for the future. (See 1983).
1979 The January 20th edition of the New York Times carried a story in which a child was killed because of a lethal dose of fluoride at a city dental clinic. The parents were awarded $750,000.
1979 In the U.S., the National Institute of Dental Research publishes altered research claiming fluorides do not cause genetic damage in mice. The fraud is discovered.
1979 Dr.W.L. Gabler and Dr.P.A.Long at the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center find that as little as 0.2 ppm fluoride in the body (the “safe” level for public water supplies is 1.0 ppm, 8 times higher) stimulates superoxide production in resting white blood cells, seriously depressing the ability of white blood cells to destroy pathogenic agents. Superoxide in the bloodstream also gives rise to tissue damage and acceleration of the aging process. Ref: “Fluoride Inhibition of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes”, Journal of Dental Research, Vol 48, No.9, p1933-1939, 1979.
1979 Mass fluoride spill into the Annapolis, Maryland public water system, which resulted in a concentration up to 50 parts per million, boosting the heart attack rate five times and acutely affecting 10,000 people.
1979 In a book released in 1979 entitled “Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides”, a chapter was written by Dr. Hodge, who was instrumental in the Newburg experiments running parallel to the Manhattan Project work on fluorides. With regard to the “safe” dosage, Hodge wrote: “The most important and widely disregarded fact about dental fluorosis is that no safe established daily intake exists,, i.e., the maximal amount in mg fluoride which consumed daily does not produce cosmetically damaging white areas or brown stain in some areas has not been fixed.” Hodge also corrected his previously published figures for crippling skeletal fluorosis he made in the 1950’s where he had neglected to convert pounds to kilograms. As a result, most reviews which contain the “crippling daily dose of fluoride”, including the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1991 document Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, as well as the current RDA and new Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine in 1997, use 20-80 mg/day figures. At currently reported intake levels 5mg per day will cause crippling deformities of the spine and major joints.
1979 John Curnette and co-workers from Tufts University find that when blood cells are exposed to fluoride at a concentration that simultated vigourous superoxide production by the cells, phagocytosis was virtually abolished.
1979 Research at the University of Oregon Health Sciences Center by Drs. Gabler and Leong find that as little as 0.2 ppm stimulated superoxide production in resting white blood cells, the same concentration would affect active white blood cells if they were at the same time challenged by a foreign body.
1979 On November 11th, up to 50ppm fluoride was dumped into the Annapolis Maryland water supply, resulting in the poisoning of 50,000 people. Many died of heart failure during the week following the spill.
1979 A child in Melbourne, Australia dies after eating six fluoride tablets. (11/3/79)
1980 Dr. J. Gabrovsek, a research dentist (See 1976) publishes a paper which states, “Because of the inhibitory effects of sodium fluoride on phagocytosis and leukocytosis (migration of white blood cells), which are basic defense systems, I have doubts about the absolute safety of water fluoridation on a long-term basis.”
1980 Mass fluoride poisoning in New Mexico Elementary School. Ref: Pediatrics v65.
1981 Drs. Susheela and Sharma and co-workers from the India Institute of Medical Sciences find that fluoride exposure disrupts the synthesis of collagen in the body and leads to the breakdown of collagen in bone, tendon, muscle, skin cartilage,lung, kidney and trachea. It appears that fluoride disruption of collagen synthesis in cells responsible for laying down collagen leads these cells to try and compensate for their inability to put out intact collagen by producing larger quantities of imperfect collagen and/or non-collagenous protein. Ref: “Fluoride poisoning and the Effects of Collagen Biosynthesis of Osseous and Non-osseous Tissue”, Toxicological European Research, Vol 3, No.2, pp99-104, 1981.
1981 Institute of Botany in Baku, USSR, does three studies which indicate fluoride causes genetic damage in rats.
1981 Research is done at the Department of Toxicology at the Central University of Venezuela by Dr. A Iares showing fluoride added to drinking water of rats caused birth defects. Repeated in 1982 in China, with same results.
1981 Dr.John Emsley and co-workers at King’s College in London find that fluoridereacts strongly with the bonds which maintain the normal shapes of proteins in the body. The work is subsequently confirmed by Dr. Steven Edwards and co-workers from the University of California in San Diego, and by Drs. Froede and Wilson from the University of Colorado at Boulder. By distorting the configuration of the body’s own protein, the immune system attacks its own protein , resulting in an autoimmune or allergic response. Fluroides contribute to the development of an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome,which is covered up by the media and medical community, which maintains a public focus on a viral cause for the problem, promoting the harmless HIV virus as the “cause” for “AIDS”, covering up the pharmo-chemical sensitization of the population which has complex legal ramifications.
1981 Research at the Kanagawa Dental University in Japan by Dr. K. Ishida indicates that as little as 1ppm fluoride in the body interferes with collagen metabolism and leads to collagen breakdown, causing osteoporosis, bone cancer, brittle bones and teeth, an loss of connective tissue which hold organs in place.
1981 Dr.Robert Clark from the Boston University Medical Center shows that fluorides (as in fluoridated water supplies, toothpaste,etc) stimulate granule formation and oxygen consumption in white blood cells when they were not challenged with a foreign agent, but inhibited these processes when the white blood cell needed them to fight off foreign agents. Ref: “Neutrophil Iodination Reaction Induced by Fluoride: Implications for Degranulation and Metabolic Activation” Blood, Vol 57, pp913-921, 1981.
1981 Mass fluoride spills in Jonesboro, Maine (Oct) and Potsdam, New York (Aug).
1981 Dr. Martin Drozdz at the Institute of Bioanalytical and Environmental Studies in Katowice, Poland found that rats fed 1ppm fluoride in their water had increased levels of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine levels in the blood and urine, as well as a decrease in skin and lung collagen levels. Ref: Drozdz et al., “Studies on the Influence of Fluoride Compounds upon Connective Tissue Metabolism in Growing Rats”, published in Toxilogical European Research, Vol 3, No.5, pp.237,239-241, 1981.
1982 A study at the University of Missouri concludes that fluoride causes genetic damage in mice.
1982 The U.S. Public Health Service conducts its first group of studies on animal cancer and fluorides, mandated by the 1977 Congressional Hearings. The study lasts until 1984, and then is scrapped because of flaws in design and progress. (See 1985, Batelle Memorial Instutite).
1982 A study at the Institute of Botany in Baku, USSR, demonstrates that fluorides cause genetic damage in onions. Repeated in 1983.
1982 Peter Wilkinson at the University of Glascow testifies before the Scottish High Court in Edinburgh in a legal case entitled “Inhibition of the Immune System with Low levels of Fluoride” which revealed that fluoride decreases the migration rate of human white blood cells. At a concentration of .2ppm (which is .8ppm below the “approved” level of 1 ppm), relative white cell migration rate is reduced 8%. A concentration of 1ppm would produce a physiological decline of around 10%. Fluoride added to water supplies, tooth paste, school dental washes, supplement pills and dentists visits are increased and promoted, contributing to a further co-factor in the decline of the immune capability of the population. Fluoride confuses the human immune system and causes it to attack the body’s own tissues, cumulatively resulting in accelerated aging.
1982 In Science magazine, Vol 217 p26-32, Dr. Dennis Leverett of the University of Rochester states, “if there are increasing concentrations of fluoride in the food chain, particularly food for infants, then we should expect fluorosis to be increasing in the population as well. The widespread use of fluorides might have created a situation in which we are approaching a critical mass of fluoride in the environment. There needs to extensive research done.” Later in 1983 he would contradict himself at the University of Michigan symposium.
1983 Zhang and Zhang publish a study which shows that fluorides cause birth defects in fish.
1983 Researchers at Loma Linda University in California, led by Dr.John Farley, show that treatment of bone cells with less than 1ppm fluoride increased collagen formation by 50%, leading to formation of irregular bone. (But also leads to collagen breakdown. See 1981, Ishida).
1983 Research is done at the Kunming Institute of Zoology in China which indicates that fluoride causes genetic damage in deer and in human blood cells.
1983 Physicians Desk Reference states “the recommended fluoride dosage for children between birth and two and a half years old is 0.25 mg. (Compare with 1978,1992)
1983 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency deputy assistant administrator Rebecca Hammer points out that fluoride-polluting industries can get paid for using public drinking waters as a sewer for their toxic waste products when she says “this agency regards the use of fluosilic acid as a source of fluorides for water fluoridation an ideal environmental solution to a long standing problem of contamination of the water and air from fertilizer manufacturing.”
1983 A symposium takes place at the University of Michigan after years of planning between the US Dept of Health and Human Services, the USPHS Michigan state health plans, the Kellogg Foundation, CDC,Medical Products Labs and others to “discuss the status of organized opposition to fluoridation, to analyze probable motives influencing the anti-fluoride movement, to develop political and legal strategies for the defense and promotion of fluoridation, and to access the need for a national fluoridation strategy.” Dr. Dennis Leverett of the University of Rochester reported that his commitee felt that fluoridation was a “political issue and not a scientific situation”. See 1982,1988. The Symposium was a taxpayer-supported event. Also attending were members of the ADA National Fluoridation Advisory Committee, John Small (the government’s pro-fluoride czar), the American Association of Dental Schools, members from the Illinois and Ohio State Departments of Health, and the Chief Dental Officer of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proceedings were published in a 129-page book titled “Fluoridation: Litigation and Changing Public Policy.” (See ADA Nat’l Fluorodation Commitee address in 1988). Dr. William T. Jarvis, a member of the board of the American Council of Science and Health ( a front group for the junk food industry), speaks on “The Psychology of Anti-fluoridation”, noting that debates on flouride always “seems to result in people becoming anti-fluoridationist.” Dr. Stephen Corbin of the USPHS suggested that a mandatory State Fluoridation Law be developed, and a Dr. Easley suggested processes be initiated to deny those seeking relief through the courts their right to due process. Dr. D. Scott of Blue Cross/Blue Shield suggested that the cost of litigation defending fluoridation should be borne by taxpayers! Ms. Colleen Wulf of the Ohio Deparment of Health reported that her committee suggested formation of a non-profit organization which would coordinate with with CDC and ADA, and pointed out that CDC has already drafted promotional materials for fluoride, and that the ADA and the USPHS had already formed the Ad Hoc Commitee to Plan for the Legal Defense of Community Water Fluoridation. She suggests the name of the new group might be something like “Coalition for Improved Dental Health, or something similar”. NOT ONE SCIENTIST ATTENDED the University of Michigan Symposium: ten who attended were dental hygenists, two were dentists, five had degrees in Public Relations, Education, Psychology, or Public Health, one had no degree at all and a introduction was written by psychiatrist Stephen Barrett, who ironically would maintain a website in 1997 on “medical quackery”.
1983 Dr.John R. Farley and co-workers from Loma Linda University show that treatment of bone cells with less than 1ppm fluoride increases collagen formation by 50 percent (unstable collagen. See 1981 Susheela). Ref: “Fluoride Directly Stimulates Proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Bone Forming Cells”, Science, Volume 222, pp330-332, 1983.
1984 Research work at Nippon Dental University in Japan prove that fluorides cause genetic damage in hamster cells, human embryo and blood cells. Research also indicated that fluoride was also capable of transforming normal cells into cancer cells. The level of fluoride that could do this were the same level that the National Cancer Institute suggested should be used to determine whether or not fluoridation of public water supplies causes cancer.Ref: Dr. Takeki Tsutsui, NDU. Cancer Research, Vol 44,pp938-941, 1984, “Sodium Fluoride Induced Morphological and Neoplastic Transformation, Chromosome Aberrations and Unscheduled DNA Synthesis…” Also supported in Carcinogenesis, Vol 9, pp2279-2284, 1988 Cell Biology Toxicology, Volume 4, pp311-324, 1988 Genetics, Vol 48, pp307-310, 1963.
1984 The 1984 issue of Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products indicates that 1/10 oz of fluoride in the human body is lethal for a 100 pound adult human. Fluoride toothpaste contains up to 1mg/gram of fluoride. A whole tube contains about 199 mg of fluoride – enough to kill a 25-pound child. Toothbrushing causes ingestion of 0.25 mg/day.
1985 Research is conducted by the Edinburgh Medical Research Council in England which indicates that fluoride causes genetic damage in human blood cells.
1985 Based on a report on fluorides altered by Surgeon General Koop, the EPA recommends a raising of the amound of fluorides allowed in drinking water from 2 ppm to 4 ppm.
1985 Study by the World Congress of Biological Psychiatry finds that in a study of 321 violent individuals, most of them white and middle class, 95% of them showed evidence of brain dysfunction and neurological disabilities. The age of the individuals and symptoms coincide with degeneration caused by vaccination programs. Ref: Vaccination, Social Violence and Criminality.
1985 The U.S. Public Health Service contracts a second set of studies on animal cancer and fluoride, mandated by the 1977 Congressional Hearings. The USPHS contracts Batelle Memorial Institute in Ohio, which conducts a study lasting until 1987. The results are released in 1988. (See 1988).
1985 Dental hygenists, psychiatrists, public relations experts, education specialists and psychologists (no scientists) form “The American Oral Health Institute” and release a book “Abuse of the Scientific Literature in an Antifluoridation Pamphlet”, in which they attack scientific data relative to fluoride and those who oppose its use in the public water supply. An examination of the book, ironically, revealed “abuse of scientific literature” on the part of the authors, who demonstrated their lack of scientific expertise and themselves were guilty of deception and misrepresentation of scientific fact.
1985 Research at the University of Oregon by Gabler demonstrate that low levels of fluorides in the body delayed white cell response to foreign agents.
1985 The work of Takuya Saito in Japan demonstrates that even micromolecular amounts of fluoride, below 1ppm, may seriously depress the ability of white blood cells to destroy pathogenic agents in the body.
1986 Research is conducted at the University of Sussex in England which indicates that fluoride causes genetic damage in mouse lymphoma (white) cells.
1986 Study by Kay, A.R., et al, is published in the Journal of Neuroscience, Vol 6, pp.2915-2920,1986, “Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis”, in which it was shown that intracellular fluorides can alter the kinetic properties of calcium currents in hippocampal neurons, which can affect behavior.
1986 The Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center reports 87 cases of fluoride poisoning . Two cases involved fluoride treatment by a dentist. One 13 month old child died. Twenty five suffered gastrointestinal symptoms. Sodium fluoride is the most frequent single cause of acute poisoning in children.
1987 Paterson Institute for Cancer Research in England demonstrates that fluoride causes genetic damage to human cells.
1987 In the United States, research is conducted at the National Institute of Environmental Health which indicates that fluoride causes genetic damage to mouse lymphoma cells.
1987 Research is conducted at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in England which indicates that fluorides cause genetic damage in human blood cells.
1987 A study is done at the Institute of Pitaniia in the USSR which indicates that fluoride causes genetic damage in rat bone marrow cells.
1988 Dr. Joel Boriskin, chairman of the ADA National Fluoridation Advisory Committee, gives an address before the Calgary Health Department, in which he claimed, mg of fluoride per day (a lethal dose) is prescribed to older people than have progressive hearing loss.” Ref: Journal of the American Dental Association, May 1990.
1988 Affidavit sworn by Dr. Robert J.H.Mick (formerly a Lt. Colonel in the Dental Corps, U.S. Army Reserves, who states that he was “…threatened by General Gorby in Germany with a possible court-martial and other penalties in 1954 if I did not discontinue my activities opposing fluoridation and the fluoridation of military posts.”
1988 Battelle Memorial Institute releases its studies on fluorides and animal cancer for the USPHS which, ironically, report highly specific fluoride-related cancers. The data is turned over to the National Toxicology Program (NTP), who gives the data to the Experimental Pathology Labs, who reclassify and delete items damaging to the pro-fluoridation faction. The altered data is then submitted to the “pathology working group” on December 6, 1989, after a year of reworking. All this with the full knowledge of EPA and USPHS. (See 1990).
1988 Dr. Joel Boriskin, chairman of the ADA national fluoridation advisory committee, in an address before the Calgary Health Department, claims that mg of fluoride per day is prescribed to older people that have progressive hearing loss”. (Note: 1500 mg/day is a lethal dose).
1988 Researchers at the Argonne National Laboratory discover that fluoride promotes and enhances the carcinogenicity of other cancer-causing chemicals in the food and environment. Interestingly, this work confirmed studies sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute conducted back in 1963 by Herskowitz and Norton at Saint Louis University. More than 30 years ago, these scientists showed that low levels of fluoride increased the incidence of melanotic tumors in living organisms from 12 to 100% – often these tumors were induced by fluoride over a period of days. These studies were further amplified by work done by the Taylor’s at the University of Texas which found that 1 ppm fluoride in drinking water increased tumor growth rate in mice by 25%.
1989 On March 30, 1989, the California Department of Health Services reported that Niagara brand bottled water was found to contain 450ppm fluoride. The state health director, Kenneth Kizer, warned residents that consumption could be fatal.
1989 In New South Wales, Australia, a law is passed prohibiting town councils from stopping the fluoridation of their water supplies without the permission of the health department.
1989 In 1989 Dr.Yiamouyiannis used the Freedom of Information Act to obtain carcinogenicity studies conducted by Proctor and Gamble (one of the makers of fluoridated toothpaste) that were submitted to (and covered up by) the United States Public Health Service. These studies showed dose dependent cell abnormalities caused by fluoride. These results were reported in the February 22, 1990 issue of the Medical Tribune. Additional studies by Proctor and Gamble scientists confirmed the link between oral precancerous growth and fluoride, as well as an increase in osteomas (bone tumors) and osteosarcomas (bone cancer). In fact, the National Cancer Institute found in 1991 that the incidence of bone cancer was 50% higher in men ages 0-19 years of age exposed to fluoridated water compared to those who were not.
1989 A study by Hildebolt, et al. on 6,000 school children contradicts any alleged benefit from the use of fluorides.
1989 Research studies are conducted at Nippon University in Japan which shows that fluorides causes genetic damage to human cell cultures.
1989 Fluoride concentrations of 0.3 – 0.5 ppm, half that used for fluoridation, put into the Columbia River in Washington by an aluminum plant, have a very pronounced effect on the migration time and survival of adult salmon. [Damkaer, D.M, and Dey, D.B., “Evidence for Fluoride Effects on Salmon Passage at John Day Dam, Columbia River, 1982-1986”, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, Vol 9, 1989, pp.154-162].
1989 On February 23, 1989, Battelle released the results of its study of fluorides on mice. A most curious result of the study, from the USPHS point of view, was that fluoride induced the occurrence of an extremely rare form of liver cancer, called hepatocholangio carcinoma, in fluoride-treated male and female mice. Two months later in April of 1989, Battelle released the results of its study of fluorides and rats. The study showed a dose-dependent relationship between the incidence of oral cancerous tumors and fluorides. It is interesting to note that mice and rats yielded different The results with fluoride – different types of cancer. As a response to the Battelle study, the National Cancer Institute from examined the incidence of oral cancer in fluoridated and non-fluoridated countries over the period from 1973 to 1987. The National Cancer Institute study found that as exposure to fluoridation increases, so does the incidence of oral cancer sometimes as much as a 50% increase in oral cancer rates occur in fluoridated areas – this translates to 8,000 new cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer per year, needless pain and suffering and a financial windfall to the medical and pharmaceutical factions that concern themselves with treatment.
1989 The 12 year study the National Cancer Institute was ordered to do in 1977 is finally compete. It finds evidence that fluorides cause cancer in male rats. Directed to examine cancer trends in the U.S. population, the NCI finds nationwide evidence of “a rising rate in bone and joint cancer of all ages combined, due mainly to trends under the age of 20 (cultural programing on what to eat and drink and how to live), was seen in the fluoridated countries but not the unfluoridated countries.
1990 The National Toxicology Program issues a Press Release with data confirming findings of a link between fluoride and osteosarcomas as well as higher rates of oral cancer in rats. (January 1990)
1990 The American Dental Association issues a Press Release which states “water fluoridation remains the safest, most effective, and most economical public health measure to reduce tooth decay.”
1990 The National Toxicology Program in February 1990 releases its pathological data tables with a cover letter which, in a turnabout, claims “there has not been any evidence that shows a relationship between fluoridation and cancer or any other diseases in humans”, and “water fluoridation has proven highly effective in improving the nation’s dental health by markedly reducing tooth decay”. The NTP final report, issued in March, omitted all studies which showed genetic damage from fluorides, and important studies showing that fluorides induce tumors and cancers were ignored. Kraybill, head of the NTP study, becomes a consultant to the American Council of Science and Health (ACSH), who threatens to sue the EPA if it “tries to undermine public confidence in fluoride.”
1990 The American Dental Associations ADA News reports that Proctor and Gamble (who make fluoride-based toothpaste) has “unpublished findings” which “refute the carcinogenicity of fluoride”. Proctor and Gamble in March 1990 publish their paper on fluoride and bone cancer (rats) and leave out their data on mice. The rat studies confirm an earlier study that proved that fluorides in food resulted in precancerous growth in the mouth. In contradiction to their own results, P&G declares that fluoride “does not cause precancerous or cancerous changes.
1990 A study by Dr.John Yiamouyiannis on 39,000 school children contradicts any alleged benefits from the use of sodium fluorides.
1990 Two scientific studies reveal that “experience with other developmental neurotoxicants will be comparable across species, especially humans and rats.” Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol 12, pp.261-267, Stanton et al, pp.285-292, Francis et al, 1990, “Workshop on the qualitative and quantitative comparability of human and animal developmental neurotoxicity”, “Comparability measures of developmental neurotoxicity in humans and laboratory animals.”
1990 Dr. John Colquhoun in New Zealand is forced into early requirement in New Zealand after he conducts a study on 60,000 school children and finds no difference in tooth decay between fluoridated and unfluoridated areas. He additionally finds that a substantial number of children in fluoridated areas suffered from dental fluorosis. He makes the study public.
1990 The September 14th issue of Newsweek reports that the study performed by Battelle Memorial Institute under Congressional mandate to look into fluorides and animal cancer (that found a connection) was refused for publication by the Journal of the National Cancer Instiute.
1991 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) again engages ICAIR Life Systems to perform a “literature search on fluorides”. A researcher for ICAIR, Dr. John Beaver, admits that he was instructed to select only certain reports and ignore others. The final series of reports was sent to EPA, who forwards them to the Subcommittee on Risk Assessment of Ingested Fluoride of the National Academy of Sciences as an “independent” report. Five out of eight members of the Subcommitee are historically pro-fluoridation.
1991 National Cancer Institute finds that the incidence of bone cancer was about 50% higher in men up to 19 years old exposed to fluoridated water, composed to those not exposed.
1991 A report surfaces that fluoride-containing pesticides on fruit increase human fluoride intake. Some juices contain 6.8 ppm fluoride. [Stannard, J.G., et al, “Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination of fruit juices”, Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, Vol 16 No 1, 1991, pp.38-40 “Assessing Fluoride Concentration of Juices and Juice-Flavored Drinks”, Journal of the American Dental Association, JADA Preview, 1996, Kiritsy et al.]
1991 An examination of the effect of fluorides by Freni (see 1994) is performed in a complicated study comparing the total fertility rate in countries whose water supplies had at least 3 ppm fluoride. He found a negative total fertility rate (TFR) association that fit with similar toxicology data for animals. Freni hypothesized that fluorides lowers protein synthesis in osteoblasts and that fluorides inhibit the adenylyl cyclase system in human spermatozoa. (See 1994, Narayana and Chinoy).
1992 Chinese research at the Department of Pathology, Guiyang Medical College, finds cellular abnormalies in fetal brain tissue exposed to fluorides.
1992 Canadian Dental Association Proposed Fluoride Guidelines states “Fluoride supplements should not be recommended for children less than three years old.”
1992 Government figures reveal that over 144 million Americans are medicated with fluoridated water in the United States. (For inplications, see Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats, fluoride effect on the hippocampus in the brain, which governs ability to respond to new situations, behavior and decision-making.
1992 Michael Perrone, a legislative assistant in New Jersey, contacts the FDA requesting all information regarding the safety and effectiveness of fluoride tablets and drops. After 6 months of stalling, the FDA admitted they had no data to show that fluoride tablets or drops were either safe or effective. They informed Perrone that they will “probably have to pull the tablets and drops off the market.”
1992 Another scientific study reveals that fluorides suppress the immune system. [Gibson, S., “Effects of Fluoride on the Immune System”, Complimentary Medical Research, Vol 6, No.3, October 1992, pp.111-113.]
1992 Scientific report reveals the connection between fluorides and non-ulcer dyspepsia (epigastric pain after eating). [ Gupta, I.P., et al, “Fluoride as a Possible Etiological Factor in Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia”, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol 7, 1992, pp.355-356 also, Susheela, A.K., “Fluoride Ingestion and Its Correlation with Gastrointestinal Discomfort”, Fluoride, Vol 25 No.1, 1992,pp.5-22] Note: Since fluorides are cumulative in the body, the general level in the population where large gastric problems arise may be occurring. Thus, the large marketing effort for “acid controllers” in the 1990’s, which may also be covering up the prevalence of heliobacter pylori infection as well as approaching fluoride toxicity in the population.
1992 A scientific study reveals that fluorides in the water supply to 1 ppm is associated with an increase in the hip fracture rate of women, and that fluoride accumulates with age, and may reach toxic levels in a person’s lifetime. [ Danielson, C., et al, “Hip Fractures and Fluoridation in Utah’s Elderly Population”, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 286, No.6, August 1992, pp.746-748]
1992 The EPA is ordered to reinstate a senior scientist, William Marcus, and pay him $50,000 for emotional distress, after firing him because he publically questioned and opposed EPA policy on the use of fluorides in water supplies.
1993 In July 1993, fluoridated water kills three people on dialysis. Chicago Tribune, “Fluoride Blamed in Dialysis Deaths”, July 31, 1993.
1993 Another study demonstrates that fluoride is genotoxic (indicating chromosome damage), including those at concentraions of 1.0 – 5.0 ppm. [Ziegler et al, Experimental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Branch, National Institute for Envrionmental Health Sciences, “Genetic Toxicity of Fluoride”, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Vol 21, 1993, p.309-318.
1993 Associated Press releases article on August 18, 1993 claiming “no health risk for fluoridated water”, as stated by the National Research Council and Dr.Bernard M. Wagner from the New York University School of Medicine. A statement that million Americans drink water with .7ppm fluoride”.
1993 Because of pressure from New Jersey legislative aide Michael Perrone, the Food and Drug Administration is forced to admit they have no studies which show fluoride tablets or drops were either safe or effective, and that the sale of fluoride drops was illegal.
1993 In July 1993, a scientific study of the effect of fluoride on rats links behavior changes and brain damage with aluminum and fluoride. [ Varner, J.A. et al, “Chronic Aluminum Fluoride Administration: II. Selected Histological Observations” Neuroscience Research Communications, Vol 13 No.2, 1993, pp.99-104 Chase, M., “Rat Studies Link Brain Cell Damage with Aluminum and Fluoride in Water”, Wall Street Journal, October 28, 1992.]
1994 A study by Narayana and Chinoy comments on “the wide prevalence of infertility in fluorosis-affected human populations in India and other parts of the planet. [Narayana and Chinoy, “Effect of Fluoride on Rat Testicular Steroidogenesis”, Fluoride, Vol 27, No. 1, pp.7-12, 1994.]They found that fluorides interfere with androgenesis and adversely impair the target organ structures. There was the suggestion that fluorides may alter the configuration of cellular receptors, thereby inhibting the action of testosterone in the same way that hormone-disrupting chemicals (chemicals that mimick estogens) do.
1994 A study on the physiological and behavioral effects of Sodium Fluoride is published on October 12, 1994. The study is done by Mullenix, Denbensten, Schunior and Kernan, from the Toxicology Department, Forsyth Research Institute in Boston, the Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Eastman Dental Center, and the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Iowa State University. According to the study, published in Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol 17, No. 2, pp. 169-177, 1995, while fluorides have a great number of effects on the body, the effect on the brain and central nervous system structures were examined, and it was found that fluorides affect the hippocampus, which is the central processor which integrates inputs from the environment, memory, and motivational stimuli to produce behavioral decisions and modify memory. Note: Now it can be seen why the Nazis and Soviets used fluorides in the prison camp water supplies to reduce the will to resist and make the prisoners docile and not tend to question authority. It is the primary reason it is added to water supplies, since there is no credible scientific evidence it exists in the water supply for any other purpose. After several years, we have found no credible evidence, only anecdotal reviews by groups with a vested interest in keeping toxic fluorides in use. (See 1957, Montreal Neurological Institute, and the case of H.M). This 1994 study also showed that “effects on behavior relate directly to plasma fluoride levels in the brain, and fluoride accumulation in the brain, establishing that long-term accumulation of fluorides in the brain does occur, even with minimal doses. This 1994 report also stated that “overall, the behavioral changes from fluoride exposures are consistent with interrupted hippocampal development. Although this study was done on rats, according to the report “a generic behavioral disruption is found in this rat study can be indicative of a potential for motor dysfunction, IQ deficits and/or learning disabilities in humans, and that substances that accumulate in brain tissue potentiate concerns about neurotoxic risks. This is the first laboratory study to demonstrate that central nervous system functional output is vulnerable to fluorides that is publically released, although decades of studies have been done, but not released, by the Mellon Institute and various agencies, who keep the results to themselves for the last 50 years.
1994 In November 1994 in Australia, the Victorian Parliament passes an amendment to the “Fluoridation Act” to change the constitution in order to stop the Supreme Court of Victoria from hearing any public cases or evidence against artificial fluoridation.
1994 Freni, S.C., “Exposure to High Fluoride Concentrations on Drinking Water Associated with Decreased Birth Rates”, Journal of Toxicological and Environmental Health, Vol.42, p.109-121, 1994. This is another study which indicates another reason for fluoride administration is population birth control by involuntary chemical medication.
1995 Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol 17, No.2,p.169-177, “Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats”, Meullenix, et al, 1995, reveals that fluorides are cumulative in the brain , humans are exposed to plasma fluoride levels as high as those given to rats , fluorides interrupt normal brain development in babies and children , and fluorides affect the hippocampus, the “central processor” in the brain which integrates inputs from the environment, memory, and motivational stimuli to produce behavioral decisions and modify memory. This firmly establishes that mass fluoridation affects the behavior of society, in that it undermines the capacity for people to make decisions and become motivated to act against abnormal environments (such as that present in tyranny).
1995 In Australia, the Tasmanian government passes a bill to prohibit the holding of meetings on the subject of fluoridation. Called the “Consequential Amendments Bill”, it is later withdrawn for rewording and reissue at a later date.
1995 A Chinese study on fluorides finds that the IQ of children is lowered in fluoridated areas. Zhang, I.B., et al, “Effect of a High Fluoride Water Supply on Children’s Intelligence” [Pending Publication]
1995 On the 50th anniversity of fluoridation in the United States and Canada, a study published by Mullenix et al reveals “the functional output of the central nervous system is vulnerable to fluorides, and that the effects on behavior depend on the age at which exposure takes place and how much fluoride accumulates in brain tissue.” Furthermore, “fluorides in drinking water affect the nervous system directly without first causing skeletal deformations from fluorosis”. Proponents of fluoridation typically use fluorosis as a measure of effect, when in fact neural effects occur at a very low dosage.
1996 In May 1996, the FDA introduces a new fluoridated drug, this time an “anti- obesity drug, dexfenfluramine, “despite the objection of consumer advocates who content it could cause brain damage.” According to the press release on May 1, 1996, the drug “alters the brain chemical serotonin.”
1996 The governor of New York signs a bill into law prohibiting communities who do not want water fluoridation from being fluoridated. (June/July 96).
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