Gallery for Norwegian Front, Second World War

Gallery for Norwegian Front, Second World War


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Is Atlantic Crossing a True Story?

&lsquoAtlantic Crossing&rsquo is a period drama television series that follows Norway’s Crown Princess during World War II. She faces many challenges to protect her country while living in the United States. It is created by Alexander Eik and stars Sofia Helin, Kyle MacLachlan, and Tobias Santelmann in the lead roles. It has developed a dedicated fan following thanks to its exploration of the World War II-era politics, diplomacy, and social climate. The show&rsquos setting and allusions to real-world people with a significant impact on history will most certainly make audiences wonder if the series is based on certain true events. We did some research, and here&rsquos what we learned about the matter.


World War II [ edit | edit source ]

He joined Norwegian Independent Company 1 (Norwegian: Kompani Linge) in 1941. During World War II Knut Haukelid and the Kompani Linge group, sabotaged the Nazi Germany controlled heavy water Vemork plant in Rjukan in a long-range raid which began at an airfield in England. On February 28, 1943, the demolition team entered the Norsk Hydro plant and set explosive charges. The heavy water produced at a facility in occupied Norway was vital for the Third Reich's participation in the nuclear bomb race. British War Cabinet also ordered Haukelid to sink the Norwegian ferry SF Hydro carrying the containers of heavy water across Lake Tinnsjø. The ferry was sunk with hidden explosives on February 19, 1944. Β]


There are thousands joyful pictures of the liberation of France in 1944. But among the cheering images there are also shocking ones. These show the fate of women accused of “collaboration horizontale”. It is impossible to forget Robert Capa’s fallen-Madonna image of a shaven-headed young woman, cradling her baby, implicitly the result of a relationship with a German soldier.

In 1942, Germany dominated most of Europe. Greater Germany had been enlarged at the expense of its neighbors. They were there, and, like soldiers of every army of every period of history, as soon as they got comfortable they started scouting around for women. And, as always in times of military occupation, there were women to be found.

The punishment of shaving a woman’s head had biblical origins. In Europe, the practice dated back to the dark ages, with the Visigoths. During the middle ages, this mark of shame, denuding a woman of what was supposed to be her most seductive feature, was commonly a punishment for adultery. Shaving women’s heads as a mark of retribution and humiliation was reintroduced in the 20th century. After French troops occupied the Rhineland in 1923, German women who had relations with them later suffered the same fate. And during the Second World War, the Nazi state issued orders that German women accused of sleeping with non-Aryans or foreign prisoners employed on farms should also be publicly punished in this way.

German soldiers exchanging their clothes with their girlfriends. Those uniforms really fit those Frenchwomen pretty well!

Collaborator

Another collaborator, somewhere in France. Found on a German POW.

Nobody seems to know where this photo came from. It shows a young lady in an officer’s (Untersturmführer) uniform. Women could not join SS units except as auxiliaries, and certainly did not wear SS officer uniforms.

Off-duty Wehrmacht soldier spending a day at the pool with his girlfriend.

French girl engaged to German soldier follows him into prison compound after his capture near Orleans by U.S. forces. This would have been around August 1944. She undoubtedly was safer in there with him than on the streets, subject to abuse by the partisans.

This Frenchwoman does not look like she is suffering, nor the ones in the background.

A French woman cavorting with members of Hitler’s SS in bars and cabarets.

Members of the Norwegian collaborationist Special Squad Lola (Sonderabteilung Lola) whose mission was to infiltrate the Norwegian resistance, are being tried after the war. Spirits seem to be high - indicating the level of callousness of these hardened war criminals. Lola worked under the orders of the SS/SD several hundred Norwegians were tortured, and it is believed that Lola killed more than 80 people. Ten defendants, all men, were found guilty and shot. The rest (the women) received long prison sentences.

There are thousands upon thousands of joyful pictures of the liberation of France in 1944. But among the cheering images there are also shocking ones. These show the fate of women accused of “collaboration horizontale”.


Knut Anders Haukelid was born in Brooklyn, New York. His parents were Bjørulf Knutson Haukelid (1878–1944) and Sigrid Johanne Christophersen (1877–1969), a couple from Norway who were living in Brooklyn at that time. His father was civil engineer working for the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, a now-defunct operator of part of the New York City Subway (1902–1912). Knut Haukelid was the twin brother of Norwegian American motion picture actress Sigrid Gurie (1911–1969). Since Haukelid and his twin sister were born in America, the twins held dual Norwegian-American citizenship. [3]

In 1914, the family returned to Norway. Haukelid subsequently grew up in Oslo, where his father worked as an engineer helping to lay out the Oslo Metro. In 1929, Haukelid came back to America to attend Massachusetts State College. He returned to Norway and later completed his education at the Dresden School of Technology and the University of Berlin (1937–38). Returning to Norway, he worked for his father's engineering firm, Haukelid og Five. [4]

Following the German occupation of Norway during World War II, he joined the Norwegian Independent Company 1 (Kompani Linge) in 1941. After extensive special training in Great Britain, he was selected as deputy commander of the Gunnerside group and sent back to Norway in 1943. Knut Haukelid and members of the Kompani Linge sabotaged the Nazi Germany-controlled heavy water Vemork plant in Rjukan in a long-range raid which began at an airfield in England. On February 28, 1943, the demolition team entered the Norsk Hydro plant and set explosive charges. The heavy water produced at a facility in occupied Norway was vital for the Third Reich's participation in the nuclear bomb race. The British War Cabinet subsequently ordered Haukelid to sink the Norwegian ferry SF Hydro as she transported containers of heavy water across Lake Tinn. The ferry was sunk with hidden explosives on February 20, 1944, killing 4 Germans and 14 Norwegian civilians. [5] [6]

For his participation in these raids, Knut Haukelid received multiple awards including Norway's highest decoration for military gallantry, the War Cross with sword. He was awarded this decoration twice, in 1944 and 1947: the War Cross with two swords. In addition, Haukelid was decorated by the British with the Distinguished Service Order and later with the Military Cross. [7]

Haukelid graduated from the Norwegian Military Academy in 1948. He served as major in the Telemark Infantry Regiment, and was later appointed head of the Home guard of Greater Oslo. Haukelid became a lieutenant colonel in the Army Infantry in 1959 and served as colonel and district commander of Greater Oslo Homeguard from 1966 until his retirement. He retired as a lieutenant colonel in 1974. [8]

In the spring of 1984, on the 40th anniversary of the sabotage action against the heavy water plant at Vemork, the survivors of the Kompani Linge group who participated in the action were honored at a reception at the residence Mark Evans Austad, American Ambassador in Oslo. [9]

On October 18, 1985, Knut Haukelid was honored at the Second Annual Scandinavian-American Hall of Fame Banquet in Minot, North Dakota. [10]

Knut Haukelid died at the age of 72 on March 8, 1994 at Det Norsk Diakonhjemmet in Oslo. He was buried at Vår Frelsers gravlund. [11]


A Norwegian’s Memories Of The German Invasion 80 Years Ago

Norway has been in lockdown, its borders all but closed since March 16. For Harald Schram, an 84-year-old former army captain, isolating at home, this is not the first time that life has changed almost overnight. Eighty years ago today, on April 9, 1940, Norwegians woke up to hear that Nazi Germany was invading their country.

At the start of the Second World War, Norway and the other Scandinavian countries were neutral. Increasingly concerned about the threat of an Allied invasion, however, Germany decided to invade Norway to protects supplies of Swedish iron ore and keep the area around Trondheim open for U-boats.

Around 4 a.m. on April 9, six German ships with their lights extinguished made their way up the Oslo fjord. As the shape of the cruiser Blücher began to emerge out of the shadows close to the Oscarsborg fortress, the order was given to fire. Two ancient cannons hit the bridge of the ship, lighting her up and allowing the hastily assembled gunners to torpedo and sink the ship, which had been on its way to fire on the Royal Palace. This gave the King time to escape. But the rest of the fleet continued towards Oslo, landing at dawn and quickly securing the Norwegian capital. Troops also landed at other strategic locations. At daybreak, paratroopers captured the airfields at Oslo and Stavanger.

After two months of fierce land, sea and air combat between German and Norwegian and Allied forces forces, Norway capitulated. The King and a number of Norwegian servicemen were able to escape to Great Britain.

A telephone call about the Gestapo

The sudden appearance of tanks on the streets of Oslo was both frightening and exciting to a five-year-old boy. From the outset, there was always a sense of fear. Schram’s earliest memory is that of a telephone call to his parents to tell them that the Gestapo, the political police of the Nazi party, had shot the local doctor and would do the same to any Norwegians joining the resistance. “I asked my mother if this was true, and she told me, ‘Yes, this is how it is in war.’”

As food became scarce, Schram’s father began to sell 100 liter barrels of herrings to the neighbors. These proved invaluable when the occupying army began requisitioning homes in the small town outside Oslo where Schram lived.

Families were often given less than 24 hours to leave their homes, so Schram’s father decided to leave the herrings to ferment, placing them at the front of the garage, close to the street. When the billeting officer arrived, he started to salute, before stopping abruptly, taking a deep breathe and moving on. The Schram’s house was the only one in the street that was not requisitioned.

The next step was to keep a pig, which was called Hitler. Subsequent pigs had to be hidden in the cellar, as the German soldiers would round up any farm animals they saw and eat them. Lots of people kept pigs, Schram says, but they often escaped. “Then you would quietly ask around the neighbours if anyone had lost a pig and make sure they got it back.”

A pig called Hitler - Schram points to the first pig the family kept, seen here with him and his . [+] brother Thomas

The sight of fighter aircraft in the skies overhead sparked a lifelong fascination with military aircraft. Schram, whose son Jacob became CEO of Norwegian Air last November, would cycle up to the airfield near Oslo to peep over the wall and see what planes were there.

“And then one afternoon,” he recalls, “there was a Stuka, and a Luftwaffe pilot standing by it. I waved at the pilot and he waved back. Then he beckoned to me to come over. He lifted me up so I could climb into the plane. I have never forgotten the smell of leather and wood. To be allowed to sit in the cockpit, that was heaven.”

Afterwards, the pilot fetched a ladder and leant it against the wall so the young boy could climb back over. “I went back again the next day, but he had gone,” says Schram. “I never saw him again.”

The Darker Side Of War In Childhood

War brings out the dark side in human beings, even children. Schram recalls when a boy called Lars, who had become friendly with a Nazi officer, came to school dressed in a small Nazi uniform.

“We buried him in the snow,” says Schram. “And we would have left him there to die, but one of the teachers saw what was happening. By the time the teachers came running out to rescue him, he was blue in the face. The next day Lars came to school without his Nazi uniform. He never dared wear it again.”

I met Schram at his home at Asker, a suburb of the Norwegian capital, just before the lockdown. He offered me a glass of schnapps, an open prawn and egg sandwich and strong coffee, and apologized for not having any cake.

A widow for 18 years, Schram has had plenty of time to indulge his passion for military history, even more so now thanks to the lockdown. From the roof of his study hangs a fleet of model aircraft—Hurricanes, Spitfires, Lancasters, Superfortresses, Meschermitts, Stukas and Dorniers.

Part of the hull from the doomed Short Stirling which crashed en route to negotiate the German . [+] surrender

Almost every inch of his garage walls is devoted to military memorabilia, mostly from the Second World War. Perhaps the most poignant are the passenger list and section of hull from a Short Stirling that crashed in bad weather near Gardermoen airport in May 1945, on its way to negotiate and oversee the German surrender as part of Operation Doomsday . All of the 14 Allied servicemen and crew, many of whom had distinguished military records, were killed.

After the war, Schram helped to bring together the families of those who died at an annual service of remembrance at the site.

Second World War left a bitter legacy in Norway, where collaborators and children born to Nazi German soldiers were treated harshly. Even d ouble agents who had secretly worked for the Norwegian resistance were sometimes forced to flee to Sweden since they could not disclose the nature of their activities.

Shielded as a child from the worst of the news, Schram was horrified when he discovered the full extent of Nazi atrocities after the war. The perpetuators were not the friendly soldiers he would ask for sweets, or even the one whose tin helmet he tapped on the train to Oslo in a dare from his brother Thomas.

Over the years, Schram has befriended veterans from both sides. On July 4, 2020, he was due to go to Guernsey to meet John Coxell, a 98 year-old former RAF fighter pilot and the first Allied airman to land in Norway after the liberation. That won’t happen now this year, so they have rescheduled for July 4 2021.

As I left Schram’s house, he paused in front of a photograph of him at the Norwegian liberation parade in Oslo on May 8, 1945. He points out his feet. “I was so proud of my shoes, because they were new, and I never had new things to wear—I always got my brother’s cast-offs. But it rained like hell that day, and suddenly I looked down and there were bits of my shoes, floating away in the rain. They were made of paper. I just walked home without any shoes but nobody cared, we were all so happy. ”

This year, for the first time since the end of the war, there will be no public celebrations marking the liberation of Norway on May 8.

Harald Schram, R, with his daughter Ragnhild in his garage

Sources: Andrew Roberts, The Storm Of War, page 39 and Henrik O. Lunde Hitler's Pre-emptive War, The Battle for Norway, 1940. Updated 20 May.


Language usage [ edit | edit source ]

Use of the Norwegian language in the United States was at its peak between 1900 and World War I, then declined in the 1920s and 1930s. Over one million Americans spoke Norwegian as their primary language from 1900 to World War I, and more than 3,000 Lutheran churches in the Upper Midwest used Norwegian as their sole language. There were hundreds of Norwegian-language newspapers across the Upper Midwest:

  • Decorah Posten and Skandinaven were major Norwegian language newspapers.
  • The Northfield Independent was another notable newspaper. The editor was Andrew Rowberg, who collected massive numbers of Norwegian births and deaths in U.S. The file he created is now known as The Rowberg File Maintained at St. Olaf College, and is commonly used in family research across the USA and Norway.
  • Over 600,000 homes received at least one Norwegian newspaper in 1910.

However, use of the language declined in part due to the rise of nationalism among the American population during and after World War I. During this period, readership of Norwegian-language publications fell. Norwegian Lutheran churches began to hold their services in English, and the younger generation of Norwegian Americans was encouraged to speak English rather than Norwegian. When Norway itself was liberated from Nazi Germany in 1945, relatively few Norwegian Americans under the age of 40 still spoke Norwegian as their primary language (although many still understood the language). As such, they were not passing the language on to their children, the next generation of Norwegian Americans.

Some sources stated that today there are 81,000 Americans who speak Norwegian as their primary language, however, according to the US Census, only 55,475 Americans spoke Norwegian at home as of 2000, and the American Community Survey in 2005 showed that only 39,524 people use the language at home. ⎞] Still, most Norwegian Americans can speak a common Norwegian with easy words like hello, yes and no. Today, there are still 1,209 people who only understand Norwegian or who do not speak English well in the United States. In 2000 this figure was 215 for those under 17 years old, whereas it increased to 216 in 2005. For other age groups, the numbers went down. For those who are from 18 to 64 years old, went down from 915 in 2000 to 491 in 2005. For those who are older than 65 years it went drastically down from 890 to 502 in the same period. ⎞] The Norwegian language is likely to never die out in the U.S. because there is still immigration, of course on a much smaller scale, but they emigrate often to other areas, like Texas, where the number of Norwegian speakers increase.

Many Lutheran colleges that were established by immigrants and people of Norwegian background, such as Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington, and St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, continue to offer Norwegian majors in their undergraduate programs. Many major American universities, such as the University of Washington, University of Oregon, University of Wisconsin–Madison, and the Indiana University offer Norwegian as a language within their Germanic language studies programs.

Two Norwegian Lutheran churches in the United States continue to use Norwegian as a primary liturgical language, Mindekirken in Minneapolis and Minnekirken in Chicago. There are also several Norwegian Seaman's Churches in the US that have services in Norwegian. They are located in Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Miami, New Orleans, and New York.

Literary writing in Norwegian in North America includes the works of Ole Edvart Rølvaag, whose best-known work Giants in the Earth ("I de dage", literally In Those Days) was published in both English and Norwegian versions. Rølvaag was a professor from 1906 to 1931 at St. Olaf College, where he was also head of the Norwegian studies department beginning in 1916.

Communities by Norwegian speakers [ edit | edit source ]

U.S. communities with high percentages of people who use Norwegian language are: ⎟]

Counties by Norwegian speakers [ edit | edit source ]

The ten U.S. counties with the highest percentage of Norwegian language speakers are: ⎟]

States by Norwegian speakers [ edit | edit source ]

State
Age 5-17 Age 18-64 Age 65- Total (2005) ⎠] Percent (2005) Total (2000) ⎡] Percent (2000)
  United States 3,584 21,203 14,737 39,524 0.0% 55,311 0.0%
  California 234 2,977 1,458 4,669 0.0% 5,865 0.0%
  Washington 351 2,308 1,956 4,615 0.0% 5,460 0.0%
  Minnesota 140 881 1,951 2,972 0.0% 8,060 0.1%
  Texas 313 2,470 142 2,925 0.0% 2,209 0.0%
  New York 118 1,394 1,321 2,833 0.0% 4,200 0.0%
  Wisconsin 100 841 1,592 2,533 0.0% 3,520 0.0%
  Florida 366 1,208 469 2,043 0.0% 2,709 0.0%
  North Dakota 204 442 1,097 1,743 0.2% 2,809 0.4%
  New Jersey 313 793 304 1,410 0.0% 1,829 0.0%
  North Carolina 84 465 709 1,258 0.0% 360 0.0%
  Montana 595 551 1,146 0.1% 920 0.1%
  Iowa 286 459 299 1,044 0.0% 1,150 0.0%
  Oregon 695 323 1,018 0.0% 1,105 0.0%
  Arizona 295 515 810 0.0% 1,069 0.0%
  Connecticut 63 482 248 793 0.0% 789 0.0%
  Illinois 104 517 46 667 0.0% 1,389 0.0%
  Colorado 127 279 216 622 0.0% 1,110 0.0%
  Maryland 138 411 72 621 0.0% 525 0.0%
  Michigan 170 243 94 507 0.0% 740 0.0%
  Georgia (U.S. state) 425 80 505 0.0% 255 0.0%

World War 2 Quotes

World War 2 produced a variety of house-hold names, from world leaders and generals to important political players and individual soldiers. Quotes went on to become an important part of the war in the years following, particularly to those of us today who have become students of the conflict, for they give us a glimpse of the characters within. As the reader, one has the opportunity to take something away from these quotes as spoken by their owners and begin to see the person behind the quote with a clearer set of eyes - bringing a more vivid picture of the years that encompassed man's greatest modern conflict.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson:

"It must be a peace without victory. Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between equals can last." - addressing the United States Senate on January 22, 1917

Mathematician Albert Einstein:

"As long as there are sovereign nations possessing great power, war is inevitable."

Unknown TIME Magazine Writer:

"The battlefront disappeared, and with it the illusion that there had ever been a battlefront. For this was no war of occupation, but a war of quick penetration and obliteration - Blitzkrieg, Lightning War." - September 25th, 1939

American General Douglas MacArthur:

"Old soldiers never die, they just fade away."

"I'll come back as soon as I can with as much as I can. In the meantime, you've got to hold!" - As spoken to General Wainright in March of 1942

American General Dwight D. Eisenhower:

"During the time I have had WACs under my command, they have met every test and task assigned to them. their contributions in efficiency, skill, spirit, and determination are immeasurable." - in a speech referring to the five women whom served on his staff during the war - 1945

"No amphibious attack in history has approached this one in size. Along miles of coastline there were hundreds of vessels and small boats afloat and ant-like files of advancing troops ashore." - Speaking on the Allied landings at Sicily in July 1943

"Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well-trained, well-equipped and battle-hardened. He will fight savagely" - Addressed to Allied soldiers on June 6th, 1944

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt:

"I have seen war. I hate war." - at in address at Chautauqua, NY - August 14, 1936

"The Soviet Union, as everybody who has the courage to face the fact knows, is run by a dictatorship as absolute as any other dictatorship in the world." - before the American Youth Congress - February 10, 1940

"Democracy alone, of all forms of government, enlists the full force of men's enlightened will. It is the most humane, the most advanced, and, in the end, the most unconquerable of all forms of human society. The democratic aspiration is no mere recent phase of human history. We. would rather die on our feet than live on our knees." - in his Third Inauguration Speech, January 20, 1941

"I say that the delivery of needed supplies to Britain is imperative. I say that this can be done it must be done and it will be done. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." - during his Fireside Chat radio address, May 27, 1941

"The massed, angered forces of common humanity are on the march. They are going forward - on the Russian front, in the vast Pacific area, and into Europe - converging upon their ultimate objectives: Berlin and Tokyo. I think the first crack in the Axis has come. The criminal, corrupt Fascist regime in Italy is going to pieces." - in a Fireside Chat - July 28, 1943

"The world has never seen greater devotion, determination, and self-sacrifice than have been displayed by the Russian people. under the leadership of Marshal Joseph Stalin. With a nation that in saving itself is thereby helping to save all the world from the Nazi menace, this country of ours should always be glad to be a good neighbor and a sincere friend to the world of the future." - during a Fireside Chat - July 28, 1943

"On this tenth day of June 1940, the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor"

"Force is the only language they understand, like bullies." - speaking in reference to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and German dictator Adolph Hitler.

American General George S. Patton:

"Maybe there are 5,000, maybe 10,000 Nazi bastards in their concrete foxholes before the Third Army. Now if Ike stops holding Monty's hand and gives me some supplies, I'll go through the Siegfried Line like %*$# through a goose."

"Sure, we want to go home. We want this war over with. The quickest way to get it over with is to go get the bastards who started it. The quicker they are whipped, the quicker we can go home. The shortest way home is through Berlin and Tokyo. And when we get to Berlin, I am personally going to shoot that paper-hanging son-of-a-%@&%# Hitler - just like I'd shoot a snake." - In a speech delivered to his troops before embarking for Operation Overlord (D-Day).

"We want to get the hell over there. The quicker we clean up this Goddamned mess, the quicker we can take a little jaunt against the purple-%@&%# Japs and clean out their nest, too. Before the Goddamned Marines get all of the credit. - To his soldiers before Operation Overlord (D-Day).

American General Joseph Stilwell:

"The Limeys want us in even with our hastily made plans and our half-trained and half-equipped troops." - on joining the war alongside Britain, date unknown

"I claim we got a hell of a beating. We got run out of Burma and it is as humiliating as hell. I think we ought to find out what caused it, go back and retake it." - May 1942

American General Bill Slim:

"The Chinese soldier was tough, brave, and experienced. After all he had been fighting on his own without help for years. He was a veteran among the Allies."

The New York Times:

"Germany having seized the prey, Soviet Russia will seize that part of the carcass that Germany cannot use. It will play the noble role of hyena to the German lion."- commenting on the joint invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union, 1939

British General Bernard Law Montgomery:

"The Germans should have thought of some of these things before they began the war, particularly before attacking the Russians." - referring to a German soldier's request to surrender only to British or American forces and not the Russians .

"Nice chap, no General." - on first impressions of American General Dwight D. Eisenhower

British Labor Party Opposition Leader Clement Atlee:

"In a life and death struggle, we cannot afford to leave our destinies in the hands of failures." - on the British handling of the war in Norway

British Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander:

"The knowledge not only of the enemy's precise strength and disposition, but also how, when, and where he intends to carry out his operations brought a new dimension to the prosecution of war." - Commenting on the ULTRA code system

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain:

"How horrible, how fantastic, how incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a faraway country between people of whom we know nothing." - 1938

"It is evil things we shall be fighting against, brute force, bad faith, injustice, oppression and persecution." - 1939

King George VI:

"Like so many of our people, we have now had a personal experience of German barbarity which only strengthens the resolution of all of us to fight through to final victory."- September 1940

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill:

"Singapore could only be taken after a siege by an army of at least 50,000 men. It is not considered possible that the Japanese would embark on such a mad enterprise." - 1940

"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Atlantic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind the line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. All these famous cities. lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow."

"In War: Resolution. In Defeat: Defiance. In Victory: Magnanimity. In Peace: Good Will."

"Without ships, we cannot live." - on the importance of winning the War in the Atlantic

"Good night, then - sleep to gather strength for the morning. For the morning will come. Brightly will it shine on the brave and true, kindly on all who suffer for the cause, glorious upon the tombs of heroes. Thus will shine the dawn." - to the people of France - October 21, 1940

"We must be very careful not to assign this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations" - in a speed to Parliament on June 4th, 1940

"Before Alamein, we had no victories. After Alamein, we had no defeats."

"In Hitler's launching of the Nazi campaign on Russia, we can already see, after six months of fighting, that he has made one of the outstanding blunders in history." - before the House of Commons - December 11, 1941

"The enemy is still proud and powerful. He is hard to get at. He still possesses enormous armies, vast resources, and invaluable strategic territories. No one can tell what new complications and perils might arise in four or five more years of war. And it is in the dragging-out of the war at enormous expense, until the democracies are tired or bored or split that the main hopes of Germany and Japan must reside." - to the American Congress, May 19, 1943

"The only thing that ever really frightened me during the war was the U-Boat peril. It did not take the form of flaring battles and glittering achievements, it manifested itself through statistics, diagrams, and curves unknown to the nation, incomprehensible to the public."

"I expected to see a wild cat roaring into the mountains - and what do I find? A whale wallowing on the beaches!" - to Sir Harold Alexander on the handling of the Allied landings at Anzio .

"Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few." - September 1940

"The whole of northern Norway was covered with snow to depths which none of our soldiers had ever seen, felt, or imagined. There were neither snow-shoes nor skis - still less skiers. We must do our best. Thus began this ramshackle campaign." - 1940

"The Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the future of Christian civilization." - June 1940

"We have taken a grave and hazardous decision to sustain the Greeks and try to make a Balkan Front."

British Air Marshal "Bomber" Harris:

"They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind."

German Grand Admiral Donitz:

"Our losses. have reached an intolerable level." - Commenting on German naval losses in the Atlantic Theater, May 1943

German Leader Adolf Hitler:

"I saw my enemies in Munich, and they are worms."

"It is the last territorial claim which I have to make in Europe, but it is a claim from which I will not recede and which, God willing, I will make good." - Delivered in a speech covering the Sudetenland, 1938

"Germany must either be a world power or there will be no Germany" - from his autobiography 'Mein Kampf'

"Soldiers of the Reich! This day, you are to take part in an offensive of such importance that the whole future of the war may depend on its outcome." - July 5th, 1943

"Why should this war in the West be fought for the restoration of Poland? The Poland of the Versailles Treaty will never rise again." - September 1939

"Gentlemen, you are about to witness the most famous victory in history." - addressing his generals on June 9th, 1940, prior to 'Operation Yellow'.

"Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist." - March 15th, 1939

"Wipe out the entire defense potential remaining to the Soviets." - Directive 41 issued to German Army generals

"Dunkirk has fallen. with it has ended the greatest battle of world history. Soldiers! My confidence in you knew no bounds. You have not disappointed me" - June 5th, 1940

"You only have to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down." - on invading the Soviet Union

"A victory at Kursk would shine like a beacon to the world!" - to his generals

"Whenever I think of this attack, my stomach turns over." - to tank warfare specialist Heinz Guderian prior to the assault on Kursk.

"I speak in the name of the entire German people when I assure the world that we all share the honest wish to eliminate the enmity that brings far more costs than any possible benefits. It would be a wonderful thing for all of humanity if both peoples would renounce force against each other forever. The German people are ready to make such a pledge." - October 14th, 1933

"The assertion that it is the intention of the German Reich to coerce the Austrian State is absurd!" - January 30th, 1934

"Germany neither intends nor wishes to interfere in the internal affair of Austria, to annex Austria, or to conclude an Anschluss" - May 21st, 1935

"Nationalist Socialist Germany wants peace because of its fundamental convictions. And it wants peace also owing to the realization of the simple primitive fact that no war would be likely essentially to alter the distress in Europe. The principal effect of every war is to destroy the flower of the nation. Germany needs peace and desires peace!" - May 21st, 1935

"Germany has concluded a Non-Aggression Pact with Poland. We shall adhere to it unconditionally. We recognize Poland as the home of a great and nationally conscious people." - May 21st 1935

". the existence and increase of our race and nation, the sustenance of its children and the purity of its blood, the freedom and independence of the Fatherland, and the nation's ability to fulfill the mission appointed to it by the Creator of the universe."

German General Erwin Rommel:

"Which would your men rather be, tired, or dead?" - extorting an Officer during the building of Hitler's 'Atlantic Wall'.

"To every man of us, Tobruk was a symbol of British resistance and we were now going to finish with it for good." - June 1942

"The battle is going very heavily against us. We're being crushed by the enemy weight. We are facing very difficult days, perhaps the most difficult that a man can undergo" - November 3rd, 1942

"The enemy must be annihilated before he reaches our main battlefield. We must stop him in the water, destroying all his equipment while it is still afloat!" - April 22nd, 1944

German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels:

"In 1933, a French premier ought to have said - and if I had been the French premier I would have said it: The new Reich chancellor is the man who wrote Mein Kampf, which says this and that. This man cannot be tolerated in our vicinity. Either he disappears or we march! But they didn't do it."

"If we have power, we'll never give it up again unless we're carried out of our offices as corpses"

German Lieutenant-Colonel Hermann Balck:

"Schutzenregiment 1 has, at 22:40, taken high hill just to the north of Cheveuges. Last enemy blockhouse in our hands. A complete breakthrough!" - In a wartime cable sent from the battlefield near Sedan

German General Oberst von Armin:

"Even without the Allied offensive, I should have had to capitulate by June 1st at the latest as I had no more food to eat." - May 1943, following the Axis surrender to the Allies in Tunisia

German Army General Chief of Staff Franz Haldervon Armin:

"The Russian Colossus. has been underestimated by us. whenever a dozen divisions are destroyed the Russians replace them with another dozen." - Commenting on the might of the Soviet Army following the invasion of the Soviet Union

German Armaments Magnate Gustav Krupp von Bohlen:

"Greater Germany - the dream of our fathers and grandfathers - is finally created."

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini:

"Fuehrer, we are on the march! Victorious Italian troops crossed the Greco-Albanian frontier at dawn today!" October 28th, 1940

"Fascism accepts the individual only insofar as his interests coincide with the state's."

"The Mediterranean will be turned into an Italian lake."

"War alone can carry to the maximum tension all human energies and imprint with the seal of nobility those people who have the courage to confront it Every other test is a mere substitute." - 1930

"I've had my fill of Hitler. These conferences called by the ringing of a bell are not to my liking. The bell is rung when people call their servants. And besides, what kind of conferences are these? For five hours I am forced to listen to a monologue which is quite fruitless and boring" - To his son-in-law on June 10th, 1941

Leningrad Party Committee Head Andrei Zhdanov:

"The enemy is at the gate. It is a question of life and death." - Referring to the German Army encircling the city

Soviet leader Joseph Stalin:

"The Red Army and Navy and the whole Soviet people must fight for every inch of Soviet soil, fight to the last drop of blood for our towns and villages. onward, to victory!" - July 1941

Unknown Soviet Red Army Soldier:

"Men were thrown headlong at Finnish guns. Tanks and their crews were shelled and burned, whole regiments of infantry encircled. Entire battalions of troops, the spearhead of the Red Army, were cut off from their reinforcements and supplies." - During the Soviet-Finnish Winter War

French General Charles de Gaulle:

"Today we are crushed by the sheer weight of the mechanized forces hurled against us, but we can still look to the future in which even greater mechanized forces will bring us victory. Therein lies the destiny of the world."

French President Raymond Poincare:

"You hold in your hands the future of the world." - January 1919

French General Maxime Weygand:

"There is nothing preventing the enemy reaching Paris. We were fighting on our last line and it has been breached. I am helpless, I cannot intervene."

Imperial Japanese Navy Rear-Admiral Ito

"A gigantic fleet has amassed in Pearl Harbor. This fleet will be utterly crushed with one blow at the very beginning of hostilities. Heaven will bear witness to the righteousness of our struggle'" - November 1941

Japanese Emperor Hirohito

"The fruits of victory are tumbling into our mouths too quickly." - April 29th, 1942

Japanese General Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister

"Australia and New Zealand are now threatened by the might of the Imperial Japanese forces, and both of them should know that any resistance is futile."

Reverend Martin Niemoller:

"In Germany they came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up."


Cold War

Following the end of the Second World War, Norway gained a small force of 17 M24 Chaffees from the United States. Norway, however, was not resting easy. Once again, the country was facing the possibility of invasion, this time from the Soviet Union with which it shared a northern border. The focus of the Norwegian military at this time was defending their strategically important airfields. For this, three Dragoon Regiments were created ‘DR 1’, ‘DR 2’ and ‘DR 3’. Each of these were split between various airfields. Initially, the garrison forces were equipped with the recycled Stridsvogn and Stormkanon KW-III due to a lack of available M24s. By 1951, Norway had begun to rebuild its military further, thanks largely to US-led Military Aid Programs (MAPs). Through this, Norway would eventually gain a 125-tank strong Chaffee force, resulting in the retirement of the KW-IIIs as the new tanks took over.

The M24 would form a large part of Norway’s early armored units, serving until the 1960s. The Chaffee has a royal connection in Norway as, between 1955 and 1957, Prince Harald (now King Harald V) served as part of a Chaffee crew during his conscription years.

Prince Harald stands before his M24 Chaffee in the late 1950s. Photo: Reddit

During the Cold War, Norway would also come to receive large numbers of the US-made M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC). With both vehicles, indigenous upgrades would keep them in service longer than intended. In the case of the Chaffee, they were turned into the NM-116 ‘Panserjager’, an intensive upgrade program that gave them a new engine and more powerful armament. These upgrades kept the tanks in service until the late 1990s. The M113 fleet was upgraded and modified into many different variants. Just a couple of examples are the NM-135 Stormpanservogn, armed with a 20 mm cannon, and the Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) armed NM-142 Rakettpanserjager. The ‘NM’ in these designations literally means ‘Norwegian Model’. The upgrade work on the NM-116 and the M113 set a precedent in the military for upgrading vehicles. This would result in the appearance of many variants unique to Norway.

Left, the NM-116 ‘Panserjager’, an indigenous upgrade to the US-made M24 Chaffee light tank. It featured a new 90 mm gun and a new engine. Right, the NM-135 Stormpanservogn with 20mm gun turret. Photo: reddit & tank porn

Norway became one of the founding members of NATO, opposing the Soviets during the entirety of the Cold War. Since Norway shared a border with the Soviet Union, a large demand for modern military equipment appeared.

Being a member of NATO opened the way for the importation of military equipment from Western allies. This led, in the early/mid-1960s, to Norway gaining and operating a fleet of US-made M48 Patton III tanks. In total, around 38 Pattons were operated, starting with the 90 mm gun-armed M48A2. These were later upgraded to M48A5 standard with the addition of the 105 mm L7 gun. In 1968, through its NATO links, Norway also gained a fleet of 172 German-built Leopard 1s. Like Norway’s previous armored vehicles, the Leopards went through various upgrades to keep them in service. The final incarnation, the Leopard 1A5, kept the tanks in service until 2011, ending a service life of 42 years. Norway also operated a large number of Leopard 1-based vehicles. This included the Bergepanzer 2, operated by Norway as the NM-217, as well as the NM-190 Broleggerpanservogn, an Armored Vehicle-Launched Bridge (AVLB) system based on the Leopard 1.

Left, a Norwegian Army operated M48 Patton armed with the 90 mm M41 gun. Right, a Norwegian Leopard 1A5. Photos: Pinterest & iModeler


Budapest's historical architecture

Well, it's not that simple. Currently the Royal palace is occupied by the Budapest History Museum, the Hungarian National Gallery and the National Széchényi Library. So the first step is to find suitable sites and develop new buildings for these big museums and institutions. (Not an easy task by any means)

The Hungarian National Gallery will get a new building in the new museum district.

Few months ago, the government agency that oversees the so-called high-profile Museum District development project revealed the winners of a design competition for the new building of National gallery. Norwegian firm Snøhetta and Japanese studio SANAA won the competition. Construction is expected to begin in 2016, and the new building is scheduled to open in March 2018.

So the Hungarian National Gallery, which currently occupies four wings (A to D) of the palace, will be relocated into the new building by the summer of 2018.

If all goes according to plan, The National Széchényi Library will also be moved out of its current place to a more modern one, however there are no exact plans presented for this project.

So major construction and renovation works cannot and will not start until 2018. The only possible exception is the St Stephen's Room, one of smaller "historical rooms" of the palace, which is located in building „E” on the first floor of the Krisztinaváros wing. This relatively small room (only about 80 m2) could be completely rebuilt by the end of 2018.


Watch the video: Οι θησαυροί της Εθνικής Πινακοθήκης Ξενάγηση από τη Μαρίνα Λαμπράκη Πλάκα μέσω της ΕΡΤ


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