The Antechamber

The Antechamber

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This image focuses on the ceremonial bed in the middle, one out of three found in the first antechamber. Stacked up beneath it are 48 white wooden boxes (Carter no. 62) in which discoverer Howard Carter found dried provisions for Tutankhamun’s journey into the afterlife. Above and below the cow bed, one can see chairs, crates, and another bed hurriedly tossed about (Carter no. 80).

Photographer: Harry Burton
Date: December 1922 or January 1923


Antechamber

Antechamber is a set of auxiliary programs for molecular mechanic (MM) studies. This software package is devoted to solve the following problems during the MM calculations: (1) recognizing the atom type (2) recognizing bond type (2) judging the atomic equivalence (3) generating residue topology file (4) finding missing force field parameters and supplying reasonable and similar substitutes. As an accessory module in the AmberTools package, antechamber can generate input automatically for most organic molecules in a database. The algorithms behind these manipulations may be useful outside the Amber family of programs as well.

In the following, we list the usage of the programs in the antechamber package (circa 2007 for more recent information see the AmberTools Manual for the latest information execute the program with the -h option). As to algorithms beyond those programs, please refer to our paper submitted to Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Science. At the bottom of this page, we provide an example ( TP) to demonstrate how to use antechamber programs to generate prep and frcmod files to be read by LEaP. More examples and tutorials are available in other pages. We also have a trouble-shooting page, where there are some tips on how to use antechamber programs efficiently and properly.


Create parameter and coordinate files for Sustiva

First, let's run reduce to add all the hydrogen atoms to the pdb file. The hydrogenated sustiva coordinates can be found in sustiva_h.pdb.

reduce sustiva.pdb > sustiva_h.pdb

To be consistent with the name of pdb, we will change the name of the residue from "EFZ" to "SUS", and create a new pdb file: sustiva_new.pdb.

Now let's try using antechamber on our sustiva pdb file. To create the "mol2" file, required to define a new unit in LEaP, we simply run the following command:

antechamber -i sustiva_new.pdb -fi pdb -o sustiva.mol2 -fo mol2 -c bcc -s 2

Here the -i sustiva.pdb specifies the name of the 3D structure file and the -fi pdb tells antechamber that this is a pdb format file (we could easily have used any number of other supported formats including Gaussian Z-Matrix [gzmat], Gaussian Output [gout], MDL [mdl], amber Restart [rst], Sybyl Mol2 [mol2]). The -o sustiva.mol2 specifies the name of our output file and the -fo mol2 states that we want the output file to be of Tripos Mol2 format (this is an internal format supported by LEaP). The -c bcc option tells antechamber to use the AM1-BCC charge model in order to calculate the atomic point charges while the -s 2 option defines the verbosity of the status information provided by antechamber. In this case we have selected verbose output (2).

So, go ahead and run the above command. The screen output should be as follows:

You should also get a whole series of files written to your directory.

The files in CAPITALS are all intermediate files used by antechamber and are not required here. You can safely delete them. These files are not deleted by default since they may be of interest if things didn't work correctly. The sqm.xxx files are input and output from the sqm quantum mechanics code used by Antechamber to calculate the atomic point charges. We are not interested in the data here except to check that the sqm calculation completed successfully:

The file that we are really interested in, and the reason we ran Antechamber in the first place, is the sustiva.mol2 file. This contains the definition of our sustiva residue including all of the charges and atom types that we will load into LEaP to when creating our prmtop and rst7 files. Let's take a quick look at the file:

As you can see this file contains the 3 dimensional structure of our sustiva molecule as well as the charge on each atom, final column, the atom number (column 1), its name (column 2) and it's atom type (column 6). It also specifies the bonding at the end of the file. This file does not, however, contain any parameters. The GAFF parameters are all defined in $AMBERHOME/dat/leap/parm/gaff.dat. The other thing you should notice here is that all of the GAFF atom types are in lower case. This is the mechanism by which the GAFF force field is kept independent of the macromolecular AMBER force fields. All of the traditional AMBER force fields use uppercase atom types. In this way the GAFF and traditional force fields can be mixed in the same calculation.

While the most likely combinations of bond, angle and dihedral parameters are defined in the parameter file it is possible that our molecule might contain combinations of atom types for bonds, angles or dihedrals that have not been parameterised. If this is the case then we will have to specify any missing parameters before we can create our prmtop and rst7 files in LEaP.

We can use the utility parmchk to test if all the parameters we require are available.

parmchk -i sustiva.mol2 -f mol2 -o sustiva.frcmod

Run this command now and it will produce a file called sustiva.frcmod. This is a parameter file that can be loaded into LEaP in order to add missing parameters. Here it will contain all of the missing parameters. If it can antechamber will fill in these missing parameters by analogy to a similar parameter. You should check these parameters carefully before running a simulation. If antechamber can't empirically calculate a value or has no analogy it will either add a default value that it thinks is reasonable or alternatively insert a place holder (with zeros everywhere) and the comment "ATTN: needs revision". In this case you will have to manually parameterise this yourself. It is the hope that as GAFF is developed, the number of missing parameters will decrease. Let's look at our frcmod file:

We can see that there were a total of 4 missing angle parameters and 4 missing improper dihedrals. For the purposes of this tutorial we shall assume that the parameters Antechamber has suggested for us are acceptable. Ideally you should really test these parameters (by comparing to ab initio calculations for example) to ensure they are reasonable. If you see any parameters listed with the comment "ATTN: NEEDS REVISION" then it means that Antechamber could not determine suitable parameters and so you must manually provide these before you can proceed with the simulation. By default Antechamber will have set the values to zero.

We now have everything we need to load sustiva as a unit in LEaP. We just need to run tleap and ensure the GAFF force field is available.

$tleap -f oldff/leaprc.ff99SB

Once tleap is up and running we also need to ensure that it knows about the GAFF force field. There is a script in $AMBERHOME/dat/leap/cmd/ that will do this for us. We can load it into tleap with:

Our tleap console should now look something like this:

Welcome to LEaP!
(no leaprc in search path)
Sourcing: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/cmd/oldff/leaprc.ff99SB
Log file: ./leap.log
Loading parameters: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/parm/parm99.dat
Reading title:
PARM99 for DNA,RNA,AA, organic molecules, TIP3P wat. Polariz.& LP incl.02/04/99
Loading parameters: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/parm/frcmod.ff99SB
Reading force field modification type file (frcmod)
Reading title:
Modification/update of parm99.dat (Hornak & Simmerling)
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/all_nucleic94.lib
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/all_amino94.lib
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/all_aminoct94.lib
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/all_aminont94.lib
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/ions94.lib
Loading library: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/lib/solvents.lib
> source leaprc.gaff
----- Source: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/cmd/leaprc.gaff
----- Source of /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/cmd/leaprc.gaff done
Log file: ./leap.log
Loading parameters: /usr/local/amber10/dat/leap/parm/gaff.dat
Reading title:
AMBER General Force Field for organic mol., add. info. at the end (June, 2003)
>

Now we can load our sustiva unit (sustiva.mol2):

SUS = loadmol2 sustiva.mol2

If you now type list in tleap you should see the new SUS unit (highlighted in bold):

> SUS = loadmol2 sustiva.mol2
Loading Mol2 file: ./sustiva.mol2
Reading MOLECULE named SUS
> list
ACE ALA ARG ASH ASN ASP CALA CARG
CASN CASP CCYS CCYX CGLN CGLU CGLY CHCL3BOX
CHID CHIE CHIP CHIS CILE CIO CLEU CLYS
CMET CPHE CPRO CSER CTHR CTRP CTYR CVAL
CYM CYS CYX Cl- Cs+ DA DA3 DA5
DAN DC DC3 DC4 DC5 DCN DG DG3
DG5 DGN DT DT3 DT5 DTN GLH GLN
GLU GLY HID HIE HIP HIS HOH IB
ILE K+ LEU LYN LYS Li+ MEOHBOX MET
MG2 NALA NARG NASN NASP NCYS NCYX NGLN
NGLU NGLY NHE NHID NHIE NHIP NHIS NILE
NLEU NLYS NMABOX NME NMET NPHE NPRO NSER
NTHR NTRP NTYR NVAL Na+ PHE PL3 POL3BOX
PRO QSPCFWBOX RA RA3 RA5 RAN RC RC3
RC5 RCN RG RG3 RG5 RGN RU RU3
RU5 RUN Rb+ SER SPC SPCBOX SPCFWBOX SPF
SPG SUS T4E THR TIP3PBOX TIP3PFBOX TIP4PBOX TIP4PEWBOX
TP3 TP4 TP5 TPF TRP TYR VAL WAT
frcmod99SBgaff parm99

At this point we haven't loaded the frcmod file that parmchk gave us. Thus if we check our SUS unit we should find that there are 4 missing angle type parameters.

> check SUS
Checking 'SUS'.
Checking parameters for unit 'SUS'.
Checking for bond parameters.
Checking for angle parameters.
Could not find angle parameter: ca - c3 - c1
Could not find angle parameter: c1 - c1 - cx
Could not find angle parameter: c1 - cx - hc
Could not find angle parameter: c1 - cx - cx
Could not find angle parameter: c1 - cx - cx
There are missing parameters.
Unit is OK.

Our missing angle type parameters were ca-c3-c1, c1-c1-cx, c1-cx-hc and c1-cx-cx. These correspond to the propyl ring and the c-c triple bond. This is what we would expect since this type of system is fairly rare in organic molecules. We can now load our frcmod file in order to tell tleap the parameters for these missing angle types.

If we now check out SUS unit we should find that there are no missing parameters:

> loadamberparams sustiva.frcmod
loading parameters: ./sustiva.frcmod
Reading force field modification type file (frcmod)
Reading title:
remark goes here
> check SUS
Checking 'SUS'.
Checking parameters for unit 'SUS'.
Checking for bond parameters.
Checking for angle parameters.
Unit is OK.

We can now create the library file for sustiva (sus.lib), as well as the prmtop and rst7 files (sustiva.prmtop, sustiva.rst7).

saveamberparm SUS sustiva.prmtop sustiva.rst7

The output from tleap shows a few warnings, which can be safely ignored (in this case!) due to the triangular bond geometry of sustiva:

1-4: angle 7 9 duplicates bond ('triangular' bond) or angle ('square' bond)

1-4: angle 9 12 duplicates bond ('triangular' bond) or angle ('square' bond)

Building improper torsion parameters.
total 8 improper torsions applied
Building H-Bond parameters.
Not Marking per-residue atom chain types.
Marking per-residue atom chain types.
(Residues lacking connect0/connect1 -
these don't have chain types marked:

Instead of typing everything in the tleap console, the list of tleap commands mentioned above can also be used to create a tleap input file (tleap.in) and generate all the required files:


Moonpool Room

A large room accessed through a door at the far end of the Antechamber, the main point of interest in this room is the large Moonpool from which it draws its name. The Moonpool leads to an observation platform above the Sea Emperor Leviathan's Aquarium, suspended by four cables, where the player will come face to face with the Sea Emperor Leviathan for the first time. At the far end of this room is a platform with an Alien Arch on it, the platform cannot be accessed from the Moonpool Room, only being accessible through an Arch in the Aquarium.

The Moonpool Room cannot be accessed unless the forcefield securing the entrance has been disabled, which can be done using a Blue Tablet at a control, located in the Antechamber.


Antechamber (Luigi's Mansion 3)

The Antechamber is a room in Luigi's Mansion 3. It is on the second level of the sixth floor, Castle MacFrights. It is east of the Cellar and west of the Cage-Lift Room. There are two floors in this room.

There is a banner of King MacFrights that Luigi can pull, which causes two spiders to fall down. There are also a few boxes which Luigi can break to get money. There is a row of spikes blocking Luigi's path, of which only Gooigi can cross. Once Gooigi is on the other side, he can pull a rope in the northeast corner which causes four chain balls to fall on the other side of the room. Luigi can pull these chain balls with the Poltergust G-00. Pulling the chain ball in the back causes a single coin and a few swords to fall. Pulling the middle left chain ball causes a bunch of money to fall down. Pulling the middle right one causes a knight's helmet to fall on Luigi which hurts him. Pulling the front one causes a trapdoor to appear which Luigi then falls into. This reveals the second floor of the room.
There is a dragon costume, a button which Luigi can flash with the Strobulb, a torch, and a spiderweb. The spiderweb is blocking Luigi's path. To get rid of it, Luigi must bring the torch to the mouth of the dragon, and then flash the button which causes the dragon to spit out fire. Luigi can use that fire to light up the torch and then use the torch to burn down the web. On the other side of the room is a stack of coins and another rope. Luigi can pull this rope to reveal a ladder which he can climb up to gain access to the door leading to the Cage-Lift Room.


The Antechamber

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In the main game, nothing can be found in the first room. In the second room, a 5000 Pts chest can be found on the near-left corner the Green Stone of Judgement in a duralumin case on the near-right. A randomised item is in the far-left corner. The Merchant stands on the far-right corner.

In Separate Ways, a Yellow Herb can be found in the first room, in corner to the left of the door. In the chest's place is now a hand grenade. The incendiary grenade is now three crosbsow darts. The Green Stone has been replaced with the Red Stone of Faith. The randomized item is still in the same place. ΐ]


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This is a very informative documentary and a terribly sad reflection on humanity and man's inhumanity to man. Live interviews with people whose lives have been torn apart, their family members tortured and killed, and their children ripped away from them. In August 2017, a deadly crackdown by Myanmar's army on Rohingya Muslims sent hundreds of thousands fleeing across the border into Bangladesh.

Living in makeshift camps with families torn apart and children missing, these innocent people are simply struggling to survive. Some aid has been provided by the British, but it can never make up for what has happened here. The Buddhist leaders of Myanmar reject any responsibility for the atrocities. Heart breaking!


Week Type Name Winner(s)
Secret Story 5 - Antechamber
Week 1 Priority Sandwich Stacker Danny
PoV #1 Infinity Fall Tung
Week 2 HoH #1 Mahjong Mix Tung
PoV #2 Wordstone Mihai
Week 3 HoH #2 Who Said It? Andrew
HoH #3 Grid 16 Mikey
Week 4 HoH #4 Hold The Rope Ezekiel
PoV #4 Pinata Shells Ezekiel
Week 5 HoH #5 Snake On A Cartesian Plane Mihai
PoV #5 Boomshine Andrew
Week 6 HoH #6 Dozen Andrew
PoV #6 Puzzle Rescue Prime Will
Week 7 PoV #7 Panda Mikey
Week 8 HoH #7 Jelly Collapse Nicholas
PoV #8 Pandora's Box &
Money Kickoff
Will
Week 9 HoH #8 Sunny Day Sky Will
PoV #9 Zuma's Revenge Will
Week 10 HoH #9 Cats Mikey
PoV #10 The Interogation Mikey
Week 11 HoH #9 Re-Do Cats Mikey
PoV #10 Re-Do The Interogation Will
Week 12 HoH #10 Bauns Nicholas
PoV #11 Egyptian Hidden Objects Will
Week 13 HoH Part 1 Endurance Test Will
HoH Part 2 4444 Nicholas
HoH Part 3 Jury Answers Nicholas

Each week with the exception of first and last, each housemate will be required to submit two names for accusations on whom they think is the Saboteur. The three or more housemate with most votes will be Accused and will be punished for the week until the next round of accusations.

A striked vote means it was nullified.

The italics names are votes that came from during the Salem roles where the Townie was given an extra vote to cast.

For the full detail of Secret Story 5 Intel check here

Accusations Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Correct Points
Will Mihai,
Mikey
Mihai,
Andrew
Cinderella,
Marco
Reid,
Mikey
n/a
Nicholas Reid,
Ali,
Reid
Tung,
Ali,
Tung
Refused Cinderella,
Ali,
Cinderella
0
Reid Tung,
Marco
Ali,
Tung
Marco,
Nicholas
Andrew,
Ezekiel
0
Mikey Danny,
Tung
Reid,
Ali
Ali,
Nicholas
Andrew,
Ezekiel
0
Andrew Mikey,
Will,
Reid
Ali,
Mihai,
Reid
Refused Cinderella,
Ali,
Will'
2
Ali Reid,
Sparky
Reid,
Andrew
Reid,
Mikey
Cinderella,
Reid
0
Ezekiel Danny,
Mihai,
Danny
Mihai,
Reid,
Reid
Marco,
Reid,
Reid
Mihai,
Will,
Mihai
1
Mihai Cinderella,
Sparky
Tung,
Nicholas
Nicholas,
Andrew
Andrew,
Will
1
Cinderella Tung,
Danny
Mikey,
Tung
Will,
Mikey
Mikey,
Will
2
Marco Will,
Mikey,
Tung
Andrew,
Will,
Tung
Ezekiel,
Will,
Andrew
Evicted 3
Tung Cinderella,
Reid
Andrew,
Mihai
Evicted 0
Danny Reid,
Sparky
Walked 0
Sparky Mihai,
Ali
Evicted 0
Wayne Evicted n/a
Ahsan Walked n/a
Notes none
Scared Danny Will Andrew Reid
Jailed Tung Mikey Mikey Mikey
Accused Danny,
Reid,
Tung
Mikey,
Reid,
Tung
Marco,
Mikey,
Nicholas,
Reid
Cinderella,
Mikey,
Will


1929: Nazis in the Antechamber

ARD, also known as Channel One, is the main state-run broadcaster in Germany. On 7 October it will start showing the third season of Babylon Berlin. In order to prepare the German audience for the third season, ARD has put together a 44-minute documentary which highlights the true political and financial circumstances of the time. Not only is it informative, but it sheds light on a company and person that even Germans who know their own history quite well were not aware of: Alfred Hugenberg and the Hugenberg-Konzern (Hugenberg Corporation).

“… Alfred Hugenberg, who is, among other things, head of Universum-Film-AG (UfA) and the most powerful publisher in the republic, who has bought an empire with the money he earned from the heavy armaments industries. His main enemy: Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann, who is fighting with great persistence with the victorious powers for compromises in the Young Plan – for a peaceful future for Germany in a united Europe.”

Hugenberg has newspapers and magazines that are owned outright (Scherl-Verlag), and newspapers in which he is a shareholder (Zeitungen unter Beteiligung). His monopoly of the news market is even greater than that of Rupert Murdoch (Note: Babylon Berlin is shown on what used to be Murdoch’s Sky TV, bought by Comcast in 2018). Like Murdoch, Hugenberg also owns a powerful film studio, the largest film studio in Germany, the UFA, which will not only make classics by Fritz Lang and Josef von Sternberg, but will also produce films which awaken nationalist emotions in the masses who have hitherto been faithful communists and socialists, a working class that knows in its gut that it must oppose the oligarchs, and yet, is so easily hypnotized by the simple stories of great German Emperors and kings and heroes that are put on the screen and seem to erase the humiliating defeat suffered by Germany in 1918.

“Hugenberg grieves for the monarchy and fights Stresemann. In return, he also allied himself with the Nazis, made pacts with Adolf Hitler and the Berlin Regional Director Joseph Goebbels. Their goal is a referendum against the Young Plan. In October 1929, Stresemann dies of a heart attack. The democratic parties mourn, Hugenberg and Goebbels rub their hands with glee. When the world economic crisis also reaches Germany and puts Berliners in shock, the anti-democrats see the end of the Weimar Republic coming.”

This is how ARD begins to prepare us for the upcoming season of Babylon Berlin which, if you have not had the chance to see from the beginning, I strongly urge you to do. In my opinion it’s the first really well-produced and directed German series that also has a strong political message which resonates in our time. As happened back in 1929 when the Nazis were in the antechamber of power, so today is the AfD in the antechamber, legitimately elected in many of the poorest districts in Germany, getting serious recognition by the media outlets owned by oligarchs as well as by the state-owned media, and supported by big money from some known and some dark and unknown sources.

De-Nazification was always just a half-hearted process after WW2. It had to look like it was happening in the eyes of the world, but what really happened was that some of the big fish were put on trial, a few of them executed, a few took their own lives, but many more of the big fish were just thrown back into the water, swam away into their familiar hunting and breeding pools and continued to run the industrial and political empires that they ran prior to and during the war.

Nazis or no Nazis, big money people always seem to escape punishment, even if, like Hugenberg, they enable the rise of terrorist monsters like Hitler and Goebbels, or Trump Inc. as have Murdoch and the Trump enablers.

Hugenberg, besides his media empire, was also the head of a political party that sat in the Reichstag, the DNVP, German National People’s Party.

It all began with an organization called the Alldeutsche Verband, the All-German Association that was started in 1891 with the help of, yes, you guessed it, Alfred Hugenberg. It was influential before WW1 and after the defeat in 1918:

“Its approximately 40,000 members belonged to various political parties. Although the number of members was never very large, the All-German Association, not least with the help of its Alldeutsche Blätter (All-German Paper), unleashed lively nationalist and anti-liberal propaganda, and in the process had a considerable opinion-forming effect until the end of World War I.”

Heinrich Claß (Note: the ß has been mostly replaced with “ss” in modern German), the head of the All-German Association demanded the establishment of a “national dictatorship” and – with strong anti-Semitic references – the repression of “foreign nationalism”. Besides all this, in 1924 he was also suspected of taking part in a plot to murder Hans von Seeckt, the head of the armed forces. There is a trial, but nothing comes of it. In 1926 he is once again before the courts because he is suspected of plotting a coup. Of course nothing comes of this either. And later, during the NSDAP domination of the Reichstag from 1933 to 1945, he is seated with the Nazis as a powerless “guest,” like his friend and accomplice Alfred Hugenberg. Neither of these men are considered to be instigators by the allies after the war. In the eyes of allied justice these super-rich enablers are only “followers” who lost their way. They survived the war and died at home in the 1950s.

Sitting L to R: Hermann Göring, Reich Commissioner for Aviation and the Prussian Ministry of the Interior Adolf Hitler, Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen, Vice Chancellor. Standing L to R: Franz Seldte, Minister of Labor Dr. Dr. Günther Gereke Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, Reich Minister of Finance Wilhelm Frick, Reich Minister of the Interior Werner von Blomberg, Reich Minister of Armed Forces Alfred Hugenberg, Minister of Economics and Food. (Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H28422 / CC-BY-SA 3.0)

Both of these men, Claß and Hugenberg, started their campaigns for a “pure” Germany early in their careers. Claß started soon after he passed his exams to become a lawyer, in 1894, as a founding member of the Deutschbundes (German Federation), which propagated a “pure Germanism” by excluding ethnic minorities. Under a pseudonym he writes a best-selling history of Germany which goes into a 19th printing, all the way through to the end of the Nazi regime.

Sound and Fury

When films with sound arrived in Germany, there was a huge push-back from journalists, critics and filmmakers like Charlie Chaplin, who wrote articles about how films with sound will ruin the international character of films that conquered the world through facial expression and movement. They were certain films would now become chained through language to national markets and thus lose their power, bringing an end to the industry. But The Singing Fool with Al Jolsen arrives and breaks all box office records. It looks like the future of sound film is secure – if there is plenty of music to be heard! But there is someone who recognizes the potential of films with sound, Hugenberg’s friend and advisor Joseph Goebbels. In his diary for 2 September 1929 Goebbels wrote: “I was surprised at the exceptionally advanced technology of films with sound. … We have to recognize the future possibilities here.” And recognize the possibilities he did.

Again, in his diary entry for 3 September 1929 Goebbels writes: “This Fall a series of decisions will be made. … The war has begun!” Just the other day as he was being interviewed by Tucker Carlson, Steve Bannon declared that the war would begin on 3 November.

Here a transcript of a segment of that interview:

Steve Bannon: … Or here’s what’s going to happen. Donald Trump is going to win the vote on the only day that matters. That’s November 3rd. He’s going to win the real election in the way we’ve done it with secret ballots, with people going into a booth and voting for president of the United States, OK, by that evening, he will be the winner. And what they’re going to do is that between the lawfare they’ve got with eight hundred attorneys under Eric Holder, the mob they’ve got with Antifa and the radical elements of Black Lives Matter, but most importantly, the digital muscle of Facebook and Twitter, they’re going to sit there and they’re gonna not declare Trump the winner.

Tucker Carlson: Huh. And then maybe the real contest begins. Steve Bannon, I’m glad that you came on. Thank you very much.

Steve Bannon: That’s when the war starts.

Tucker Carlson: I’m beginning to think that’s true.

Goebbels knew a war against the enemies of his party was coming. And he was going to use every means at his disposal to make sure his party and his ideas won out. He understood the techniques of propaganda so well that he was able to use them effectively to propel a minority party into the Reichstag and then maneuver it into a position to take over the government, with no small help from the anti-democratic forces led by the likes of Hugenberg and Claß.

Goebbels and his propaganda machine was so effective that it has lasted into today, with TV, social media and even popular bands leading the charge. Old Nazi propaganda films that now have a cult following among the new generation of American fascists are the films of Leni Riefenstahl. Her first major propaganda film entitled Sieg des Glaubens (Victory of Faith) portrays the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) in an aesthetically pleasing documentary. Her biggest international hit, which still resonates today with advertisers and political propagandists everywhere is Triumph of the Will, which won a Gold Medal at the Venice Film Festival in 1935. Day of Freedom – Our Armed Forces also won her a prize, and two films about the Olympics held in Berlin in 1936 earned her a gold medal from the International Olympic Committee. Despite his official support for her film work, she has a tense relationship with the Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels. Goebbels is skeptical about her friendship with Hitler. There is some obvious jealousy for her skill as a propagandist, and animosity because of her personal relationship with the man Goebbels is in love with.

Leni Riefenstahl, who also escaped justice in Nuremberg, went on to have an unhindered post-WW2 career, even being accredited as a photographer for the 1972 Olympic games in Munich where, as you might remember, there was a terror attack and a botched rescue which cost a number of innocent lives. Eventually Leni even gets an Emmy for a film about her life story and lives out her life in peace and fame until 2003.

You must, by now, have understood that if you are super-rich or super-famous, and you are able to ally yourself with anti-democratic forces who live by the gun and maybe even die by the gun, your chances to prosper and survive will be almost certain, even after a huge defeat like WW2 or the fall of the Confederate States of America. Oh there might be a few sacrificial lambs sent to the slaughter after the fires are spent in order to make it look like justice is being carried out, but somehow or another the rich and famous will continue with their lives hardly disturbed by the temporary bump in the road to their happy and prosperous future.

Follow the link to the original words and an English translation to The Song of the Class Enemy “Das Lied vom Klassenfeind”, which was written by Bertolt Brecht in 1930 (then set to music by Rolf Lukowksy and sung by Ernst Busch). Bertolt Brecht was a German Marxist playwright and poet who devoted much of his work to opposing Nazism. The Song of the Class Enemy was written in that context. Here is the link to the song in German: Ernst Busch – Das Lied vom Klassenfeind:


Pyramid of Menkaure

Menkaure built his pyramid beside the great pyramid of Khufu and the pyramid of Khafre at Giza. He seems to have intended his pyramid to be the last great monument built at the site as the placement of his valley temple at the mouth of the main wadi would have made further major building works at the site problematic.

“Menkaure is divine”

Although his pyramid, named “Menkaure is divine”, is the smallest of the three pyramids of Giza, it is still one of the most impressive monuments of Ancient Egypt.

There was a great deal of debate in antiquity regarding the pharaoh responsible for this pyramid. Herodotus suggested that it was built for heteara Rhodopis – the original Cinderella who was a Greek slave who was given rose-gilded slippers and married pharaoh Ahmose I. However, Manetho attributed it to Nitokris, the daughter of Psamtik I of the twenty sixth dynasty (Saite period Third Intermediate Period) of Ancient Egypt. Diodorus Siculus correctly attributed the pyramid to Menkaure.

Statues found inside the pyramid complex of Menkaure are among the finest recovered from any Old Kingdom site. The statues discovered in his valley temple suggest that it was dedicated to Ra, Hathor and Horus. When Menkaure died, his successor (who was probably also his son) Shepseskaf completed his pyramid complex and recorded his actions on the wall of the valley temple.

@Ankhur P

During the twelfth century, the second Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt (al-Malek al-Aziz, son of Saladin) tried to demolish the pyramids of Giza starting with the pyramid of Menkaure. Thankfully, the blocks forming the pyramid were so huge and cumbersome that in eight months they had made little progress and he gave up. Unfortunately, he did manage to leave an unsightly gash in the masonry on the north face of the pyramid.

Unlike the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Khafre, no boat pits have been discovered in the pyramid complex of Menkaure despite an intensive search.


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