Protected Cruiser Albany - History

Protected Cruiser Albany - History

Albany

III

(Protected Cruiser: dp. 3,340, 1. 354'9 1/2"; b. 43'9", dr. 17'6" (aft); s. 20.52 k.; cpl. 353, a. 6 6", 4 4.7", 10 6-pars. 4 1-pars., 4 mg., 2 field pieces, 3 tt.)

The third Albanv—a protected cruiser laid down at Newcastleon-Tyne, England, by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. as Al- Abreu for the Brazilian Navy—was purchased while still on the ways by the United States Navy on 16 March 1898 to prevent her being acquired by the Spanish Navy, renamed Albany launched m February 1899, sponsored by Mrs. John C. Colweil the wife of the American naval attache m Londonand commissioned in the Tyne River, England, on 29 May 1900, Capt. Joseph E. Craig in command.

On 26 June 1900, Albany put to sea bound for service in the Philippines. Steaming via Gibraltar, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Indian Ocean, the cruiser arrived at Cavite in the Philippines on 22 November. She served with the Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines for the next seven months. During that tour of duty, the protected cruiser visited Hong Kong from 28 December 1900 to 17 February 1901 for repairs in drydock.

On 3 July 1901, she departed Cavite to return to the European Station. Retracing the path of her maiden voyage, Albany transited the Suez Canal early in September and reentered the Mediterranean on 15 September.

For the following nine months, the warship cruised the warm waters of the Mediterranean visiting ports m Greece, France Italy, Spain, and Egypt. She entered the Atlantic on 18 June 1902 and, after stops at Cherbourg, France, and Southampton, England, rendezvoused with Illinois (Battleship No. 7), the protected cruiser Chicago, and San Francisco (Cruiser No. 5) off Galloper light vessel on 12 July. She exercised with those ships until 20 July at which time she set a course for the Baltic Sea. During her sojourn in the waters of northern Europe, she visited Stockholm, Sweden; Kronstadt, Russia; and Copenhagen Denmark. Early in September, she exited the Baltic and, after a visit to Plymouth, England, reentered the Mediterranean on the 12th. After almost two months of duty in the "middle sea," Albany set a course for the western hemisphere early in November. She arrived in the West Indies later that month and ended the year in fleet tactical maneuvers which she concluded early in January 1903. On the 5th, the ship set a course for Boston, Mass.

After repairs at Boston and at the New York Navy Yard Albany got underway on 15 February 1903 to return to Euro

pean waters. At the end of a brief tour of duty in the Mediterranean, she transited the Suez Canal at the end of May and set a course for the Far East. She stopped for coal at Hong Kong and then joined the Asiatic Fleet at Chefoo in northern China. She spent most of the remainder of 1903 operating with that fleet in the waters of northern China, Korea, and Japan. On one occssion in mid-November, she carried the United States minister to Korea from Kobe, Japan, to Chemulpo, Korea. Upon returning to Kobe and proceeding thence to Yokohama, the protected crtuser embarked upon a voyage to Hawaii on 3 December. She arrived in Honolulu on the 16th and remained there until the 29th at which time she headed back toward the western Pacific. She made a stop at Guam in the Ladrone (now Mariana) Islands before arriving at Cavite in the Philippines on 20 January 1904. She operated in the Philippines for about a month and headed for the coast of China on 19 February. The warship reached Shanghai four days later and remained in the vicinity for a month before gettmg underway for the Philippines on 22 March. She laid over at Cavite from 26 March to 18 April. The cruiser made another brief voyage to Shanghai and back to the Philippines between 18 and 30 April. Following a week at Cavite, she put to sea, bound for the United States. She made stops en route at Guam and Honolulu and arrived in port at Bremerton, Wash., on 16 June. Soon thereafter, Albany was placed out of commission at the Puget Sound Navy Yard.

The protected cruiser remained inactive for almost three years. On 10 June 1907, she was placed in full commission, Comdr. Henry T. Mayo in command. Assigned to the Pacific Fleet, Albany spent the next three years cruising the western coasts of North and Central America. Her duty on the west coast of North America consisted primarily of training evolutions but also included surveillance missions along the coast of Central America in protection of United States citizens and their interests in the perennially unsettled republics there. She visited ports in Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. The l latter country proved to be her primary area of operations during the first part of 1910 when she was attached to Rear Admiral Kimball's Nicaraguan expeditionary force. She returned north to the Puget Sound Navy Yard in May to begin preparations to deploy once more to the Asiatic Fleet. On 4 August, she departed the navyyard on her way to Chinese waters. After stops at Honolulu in Hawaii and Yokohama in Japan, Albany arrived at Woosung, China, on 15 September. For almost three years, the protected cruiser plied Far Eastern waters visiting ports from the Philippines to China to Japan.

On 20 October 1913, the warship left Yokohama, bound for home. She stopped at Honolulu from 31 October to 5 November and arrived in San Francisco on 12 November. She moved north to Puget Sound at mid-month and was placed in reserve there on 23 December. Following repairs, she was recommissioned on 17 April 1914. That summer and fall, she cruised Mexican waters in the wake of the incident at Tampico and the resultant landing at Veracruz. She concluded that duty late in November and, on 4 December 1914, was placed out of commission at Bremerton Wash., for a general overhaul. At the conclusion of those repairs late in the spring of 1915, Albany was assigned training duty with the state naval militias of Washington and Oregon. On 12 May 1916, she was returned to full commission, Lt. Comdr. Orin G. Murfin in command. Upon returning to active service, she once again headed for Mexican waters—this time as part of the United States' response to the massacre of American citizens in Columbus, N.M., perpetrated by Pancho Villa and his band of marauders.

By early 1917, Albany was operating with the Atlantic Fleet off the coast of Virginia. This change in assignment came as a result of worsening relations between the United States and the German Empire over the latter countrY'S unrestricted submarine warfare campaign. In February and March relations deteriorated rapidly; and, early in April, the United States entered the war on the side of the Allied Powers.

On 5 July, Albany received orders to report to New York for convoy duty. She was assigned duties as flagship for Squadron 6 Patrol Force Atlantic Fleet. As such she carried the fla`r of Rear Admirai William C. Watts. For the duration of World War I, the cruiser escorted convoys of merchant ships, cargomen and troop transports back and forth across the Atlanbc. Between July 1917 and the end of the war on 11 November 1918, she shepherded 11 such convoys safely between the United States and Europe.

In 1919, Albany was once more assigned to the Asiatic Fleet. At that time, the Russian Civil War between Bolshevik and non-Bolshevik (a diverse group made up of people whose only common ground was opposition to the Bolsheviks) factions. Various Allied nowers sent military contingents to several Russian ports. The United States landed troops at Vladivostok in Siberia, possibly to check Japanese pretensions in that area and to secure that port as an exit for the Czech Legion then transiting the Trans-Siberian railway. In 1919 and early 1920, Al bany did several tours of duty at Vladivostok in support of American troops ashore. She also sent armed landing parties ashore on several occasions in further support of those troops and to evacuate sick and wounded men.

American troops were withdrawn in the spring of 1920, and Albany resumed normal peacetime duty with the Asiatic Fleet. That service included the usual summers in Chinese waters alternated with winters in the Philippines. On 8 August 1921, she was reclassified a light cruiser and designated CL-23. In July 1922, she departed Chinese waters for the last time and headed home. She arrived at the Mare Island Navv Yard on 6 August and was placed out of commission on 10 October 1922. She was berthed at Mare Island until 3 November 1929 when her name was struck from the Navy list. On 11 February 1930, she was sold for scrapping.

On 28 December 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the recommendation of the name Albany for the Baltimore-class heavy cruiser CA-72; but, before the ship's construction was begun, wartime events intervened. The heavy cruiser Pittsburgh (CA-70) was renamed Canberra on 12 October 1942— to honor the Australian heavy cruiser lost during the disastrous Battle of Savo Island—and Albany was renamed Pittsourgh (q.v.) on 26 November 1942, well in advance of her keel laying which took place on 3 February 1943.


NavWeaps Forums

For those who have access to Google books and are interested there is an article about the contract trail of the USS Albany in the 1900 edition of the Journal of American Naval Engineers page 281. It gives an overall description of the ship and details of the engineering. Its surprising how simple these ships were in many ways. For example they only have 3 thirty KW generators and one switchboard

Jul 02, 2012 #13 2012-07-02T21:55

Jul 02, 2012 #14 2012-07-02T23:31

Kitsune wrote: If I am understanding, her hull is mild steel but then covered with teak and coal pitch with copper outside?
Was that still common practice?

I think it was being fazed out around 1900 when anti-fouling paints become more reliable. The British Diadem class cruisers had sheathing but the Cressy class did not.

Though not all earlier ships had sheathing, there was a big argument all through the late 1800's about whether it was worth the expense and extra weight.

Jul 03, 2012 #15 2012-07-03T02:05

Jul 03, 2012 #16 2012-07-03T03:31

IIRC, "Elswick cruisers" were bought and used almost exclusively outside of the RN. Thus this topic should not really be in the RN forum, though there is no other place besides Fighting Ships where it might fit.

"Elswick cruisers" were generally considered insufficient to meet RN requirements, sort of like the "export" models of the MiG and T-72 tank. However, their primary designer Sir Phillip Watts (1846–1926) did go on to construct and design some of the RN's most powerful ships http://www.history.inport. h.co.uk/people/watts.htm

Jul 03, 2012 #17 2012-07-03T18:28

Jul 03, 2012 #18 2012-07-03T22:45

Sounds like the best option when you're building your ships for export sale to powers like the Beiyang Fleet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beiyang_Fleet .

Here's a sales flyer for Elswick's (Armstrong's) cruisers of the time.



http://www.cityofart.net/bship/royal-revue.htm


Though not just Armstrong advertised in such fashion..



And then there's advertisements for ammunition and machinery.

Jul 07, 2012 #19 2012-07-07T06:36

Yes. However I am not certain that this list is complete or completely accurate, so please feel free to provide updates or corrections.


Modules

Rate of Fire
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Maximum AP Shell Damage
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152 mm/50 Mk67.522.5832,10073,000 00
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Armor
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Secondary Gun Turrets
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Albany16,500676644 0 00

Protected Cruiser Albany - History

Albany Heritage Area Visitors Center
Corner of Broadway and Clinton Avenue, Albany
518-434-0405 www.albany.org

The Visitors Center is located at the intersection of Broadway and Clinton Avenue in downtown Albany – just off the I-787 ramp at the Clinton Avenue exit. At the bottom of the exit ramp, turn right onto Broadway. The Visitors Center is located to your immediate right.

Buses: Passengers may unload on Broadway in front of the Visitors Center. Enter the Center through the double glass doors. Buses may park on Broadway between Livingston and Colonie Streets. Parking meters do not need to be fed in this location for bus parking.

  • $1 per hour Monday – Friday, 8am – 5pm
  • Free after 5pm, Monday – Friday ($5 evenings when there is an event at the Palace Theatre)
  • Free parking Saturday and Sunday
  • Payment may be made with quarters, dimes, nickels, Visa, MasterCard and CDTA Swiper card

To enter the building from the parking lot, follow the pedestrian walkway to the double glass doors.

GENERAL DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS

From East and West on I-90: I-90 to I-787 South to Exit 4B (Clinton Avenue). At the bottom of the exit ramp, turn right onto Broadway. The Visitors Center is located to your immediate right.

From North: Northway (I-87) South to I-90 East to I-787 South to Exit 4B (Clinton Avenue). At the bottom of the exit ramp, turn right onto Broadway. The Visitors Center is located to your immediate right.

From West/ Thruway Exit 24: I-90 East to I-787 South to Exit 4B (Clinton Avenue). At the bottom of the exit ramp, turn right onto Broadway. The Visitors Center is located to your immediate right.

From South/ Thruway Exit 23: Take I-787 North to Exit 4 (Downtown Albany). At the bottom of the exit ramp, follow signs for Clinton Avenue. At the bottom of the Clinton Ave. exit ramp, turn right onto Broadway. The Visitors Center is located to your immediate right.


Protected Cruiser Albany - History

Among the antecedents of the U.S. Navy's 1920 hull number system was a number series for protected (and a few "unprotected") cruisers, of which more than two-dozen were built or acquired between the mid-1880s and the early 1900s. Twenty-two of these warships received "cruiser numbers", which have informally been abbreviated "C-1" through "C-22". This shortened form was, however, a matter of unofficial convenience and not a part of the Navy's formal hull number system. In 1920-21 the surviving members of the group received new designations and numbers in the Armored Cruiser (CA), Light Cruiser (CL) and Gunboat (PG) series. The old cruiser ("C-") numbers then became extinct.

In addition to the 22 ships numbered in the "cruiser" series, another five protected cruisers did not originally receive numbers, either because they were built earlier or because they were purchased abroad and were not constructed as part of the Navy's shipbuilding program. For the sake of completeness, these five warships are listed below in their proper chronological sequence.


Doctrine & Operations

The Spanish American War of 1898

The first serious test for “new navy” cruisers happened at the occasion of the Spanish American war of 1898. On paper, both for cruisers and capital ships, the USN was inferior to the Armada. However the admiralty planned to attack Spanish colonial possessions, not the metropolis. Were present during this conflict the only two capital ships of the Navy, USS Texas (USS Maine blew up in Havana, giving the casus belli needed), the Indiana class battleships USS Oregon and the unique USS Iowa, fresh from commissioning. But due to the speed needed for operations and distance, cruisers made the bulk of the operations, with gunboats, although many stayed on the Western cost to prevent an attack of the metropolitan Armada through the Atlantic.


USS New York in 1898

Probably the most famous ships to participate were USS New York, first USN armoured cruiser and flagship of Rear-Admiral Sampson at Santiago de Cuba, together with USS Brooklyn, flagship of Commodore Schley, and USS Olympia, flagship of Commodore Dewey at Manila. The latter was a protected cruiser. The first battle was not in Cuba, but an attempt of a diversionary attack, to try to lure out the Spanish Navy in the Pacific before striking in Cuba. The USN attack at Manilla, the other large colonial possession of the Spanish Empire, the Philippines, took place on 1st May 1898. The attack came as a surprise as the local forces were ill-prepared, staying under the protection of coastal artillery, and their crews were not fit for the ferocity of the assault.


USS Petrel. USN Gunboats played a great part in 1898 battles, in size and armament they were considered almost as second-class cruisers. The 1888 Yorktown class for example displaced almost 2000 tonnes and had six 6-in guns.

“Battleline exercise” at Manila

This was a daylight raid of a USN squadron against the Spanish Pacific Fleet anchored at Manila Bay. Dewey’s plan was daring, hazardous and risky, but succeeded beyond any hopes. Dewey was in Hong Kong when he was promoted to the Pacific squadron by Teddy Roosevelt, and his motley fleet was composed of the USS Olympia and the USS Boston, both protected cruisers, the gunboat USS Petrel and the very old steam paddle USS Monocacy. With this small force, he was supposed to destroy the Spanish naval force in the Philippines, much larger on paper. One of his headaches has been coal supply. His small fleet crossed the distance with a small force of coal ships, and was reinforced before the battle with another cruiser, USS Raleigh, and the small custom boat USS Mc Cullogh and gunboat USS Concord just before departing.

At Manila they faced a force led by Admiral Don Patricio y Montojo Pasaron, with the cruisers Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don Juan de Austria, Reina Cristina, Castilla, Isla de Cuba, Isla de Luzon, and the gunboat Marques del Duero. On paper, this was six cruisers versus Dewey’s only four, however most Spanish cruisers were obsolete and small, almost gunboat-size. Two were later captured and pressed in USN service as such. In addition, decision was taken to remove guns from Don Antonio, General Lezo and from the cruiser Velasco, to install them in fortifications. Montojo awaited the Americans, which had been spotted already on their way, but did not knew the time. He eventually decided not to risk his fleet at sea, and have it half-sunk by using pumps, just under fortified Sangley Point, and the battery of Ulloa on Cavite.


USS Olympia leading the line

Dewey gathered and prepared his forces in Luzon, before entering Subic Bay His line comprised, in order, USS Olympia, USS Nanshan (transport steamer), Zafiro (captured steamer), McCulloch, Petrel, while USS Raleigh, Concord and Boston closed the line. Basically his battle line made a great sweep before the Spanish ships, without Zafiro, the Nanshan and McCulloch which were unarmed and stayed behind. His line entered Cavite, spotted the Spanish line and opened fire at dawn (it was 5 AM), first on Spanish batteries, sparing their ammo for the ships later. He opened fire on the ships about 30 min. later, manoeuvring his line into a loop and retiring for lunch at 7:30 AM. During the whole operation, Dewey’s line was slow, about 3 knots, and ordered were given to gunners to take their time for perfect aiming.


Artistic, dramatic rendition of the battle of Manila (Subic Bay). The artist made it look like the fight was point-blank range, but in reality distances were of around 2000 yards (1.8 km), which was still close, eve, by the standards of the time. At Yalu, four years before, distances were comparable. This peaks volumes about accuracy as only 2% of the shells actually hit.

He went back for a second swoop, doing the same manoeuvre to “finish off” the Spanish ships ad Montojo decided later to scuttle his ships and evacuate the crews. His forces will later surrender. On the USN side, only USS Baltimore had some light damage by a ricocheting shell that did not exploded, causing 8 minor injuries as a result of sparks and splinters. Talking of ‘doctrine’, Dewey simply applied a textbook battle line tactic, preferring to engage first coastal batteries, more a threat to his eyes, before broadsiding Montojo’s squadron, taking each ship in turn. Almost showing contempt for the Spaniards, he almost acted as in a peacetime exercise. On their side the latter had partly disarmed ships not in shape for sea going action, Hontoria guns that were worn out, limited supplies of ammo that were defectious in part, lack of maintenance, and crucially, lack of training for the crews, deprived or firing exercises for long.


USS Denver underway, one of the six “gunboat cruiser” ordered after the war to watch over Cuban and Philippine ‘protectorates’

Ranges had been short, but the Spaniard almost scored no hit, whereas the USN squadron had only 2% hits, which were sufficient to disable most ships. Dewey swung in front of the Spanish ships and forts in line ahead, firing port guns, then turned and passed back with starboard guns and the process was repeated five times, with a range going from 5,000 yards down to 2,000 yards. It’s still amazing that no fort or ship on the Spanish side had any significant hit, for two hours and a half. In any case, this first naval engagement since the civil war gave tremendous confidence to the US Navy.


Dewey’s USS Olympia is now preserved and the best and only example of a 1890s armoured cruiser (Author’s illustration).

Blockade “turkey shoot” at Santiago (July, 3, 1898)

Closer to home, the USN squadron that blockaded the Spanish fleet at Santiago de Cuba was much larger than Dewey’s Pacific squadron. Sampson’s blockading fleet comprised four battleships (Texas, Oregon, Iowa, Indiana), 2 armored cruisers (Brooklyn, New York) and two armed yachts. Opposing him, Admiral Cervera came from Spain, assemblng a squadron at the Cape Verde islands, comprising the armoured cruisers Vizcaya, Infanta Maria Teresa, Cristobal Colon, the destroyers Furor, Terror and Pluto, sent to relieve the small force of Cuba (led by the flagship Almirante Ocquendo). On paper, the Spanish cruisers were relatively modern and worthy adversaries. However against USN battleships that was anoher story. However in that case, USN Battleships played little role due to their slower speed, which was a essentially a chasing engagement, even the “bulldog of the fleet”, USS Oregon. This was the battle of Santiago de Cuba.

Cervera initial plan, that he proposed to Madrid, was to link up with another squadron from Cartagena at the Canary Islands, taking the advancing USN fleet in a pincer. However he was ordered to sail to Cuba as soon as possible to engage the enemy, to his dismay. Indeed his fleet had problems, they had a poor supply of shells, guns breech blocks issues, a general lack of maintenance, notably no fooling, making the ships slower such as Vizcaya (12 knots max), or freshly delivered Cristobal Colon, which missed her main guns. Having his fleet assembled at Santiago was judicious to his eyes, as the harbour was generously dotted with coastal fortifications. There was some initial confusion between Schley and Sampson over the real location of the Spanish fleet. The former was adamant Cervera was in Cienfuegos. But eventually Cervera’s fleet was spotted by Cuban insurgents, and communication went to Schley, which made a coaling before departing.


Cristobal Colon, probably the best armoured cruiser of Cervera, one of the Garibaldi-class ships.

Cervera was ordered to leave the bay of Santiago on July 3, at 9:00, and was spotted first by watchmen of USS Brooklyn. Amazingly, the USN was so confident in the result of the engagement that many civilian yachts and schooners were also waiting around to make a picnic, waiting for the event. USS New York however (Sampson) was no longer on sight and missed the information. Meanwhile, USS Iowa engaged Maria Teresa, which was badly damaged as expected. Sampson at least realizing Cervera’s squadron was off, trying to run the blockade, he ordered his ship back, trying to “close the T”, a classic manoeuvers to disable with his broadsides each arriving Spanish ship. Cervera decided to make a diversion, charging with his cruiser USS Brooklyn as for a ramming, allowing the rest of the fleet to escape due east. Brooklyn was forced to manoeuver and nearly collided with USS Texas.

After the crippled Maria Teresa, Almirante Ocquendo was next indeed. Crippled, she eventually ran aground and exploded Furor, Terror, followed by Pluto were chased by the fleet, and the first (with his inventor, Villaamil on board) had its ruder jammed and was sunk rapidly. Next, USS Brooklyn, Texas and Oregon chased the armoured cruiser Vizcaya. The latter had two 11-in (280 mm) guns, which proved a threat. But theor only lucky hit on USS Brooklyn was a dud. Vizcaya would end as a burning wreck on the coast. The last Spanish cruiser, Colon, was chased by Brooklyn and Oregon behind. She was the most recent and therefore fastest, and seemed to put distance, however the coast was forcing to turn, and as coal was getting low, stokers had to use low-quality coal. The ship was more visible due to the hevy smoke and slower. Eventually she was caught and finished off by USS Oregon. USS New York was too far away to do any damage. So in the end, only USS Brooklyn had the occasion to prove her metal. The battle was more a chasing execution by battleships than any useful manoeuver scheme for cruisers.

US Cruisers of WWI

When WW1 broke out, the US Navy was caught with an ongoing program for more dreadnoughts, always larger and better armed, but no cruiser. There has been a program in 1915, not authorized, by C&R to design “scouts” as complementary to fleet destroyers but with a longer range. The vacancy since 1904 caused the US Navy to enter the war with a fleet of cruisers 10 to 15 years old and way more. In fact compared to its battleship fleet, the cruiser fleet was certainly not up to the task.
US Navy early “new navy” collection of masted cruisers of the 1880-1890s has been relegated to secondary duties, which left the fleet with choices to make, based on speed, mostly. The 2000-3000 tonnes protected cruisers of the Cincinnati and Montgomery, and Denver classes formed the bulk of “recent” serviceable cruisers that can 16 to 19 knots. Cincinatti and Raleigh operated along the north-south american coast. Montgomery, Detroit and Marblehead made coastal patrols and training missions. They stayed home, notably because of their range, safeguarding ports and home waters and the western atlantic. The slow Denver (16 knots) were also called “peace cruisers” and were effectively used as gunboats. USS Denver escorted eight convoys til mid-ocean, as Des Moines, Chattanooga, also from the summer of 1917, as Galveston and Tacoma. The latter was badly damaged in Halifax during the explosion of Mont Blanc.


USS New York, colorized by Irootoko jr. Notice the typical peacetime livery for the Caribbean, white hull, canvas beige for the superstructure. The prow showed the US official heraldry figure. From 1916 or before they were painted medium navy grey. In fact the USN tried light gray and medium gray paint schemes already in 1898. Artist Abbott Handerson Thayer investigated countershading color schemes but the navy switched from gray to white in the 1900s for the famous “great white fleet”, and back to Medium Grey again after their return in 1908.

The Colombia and New Orleans classes were capable of 20-21 knots and certainly more active. Both the Columbia and Minneapolis served as convoy escort ships and went to the Pacific after the war was over. The New Orleans were British-built typical Elwick cruisers, purchased from an aborted sell to the Brazilians. USS Albany was flagship for Squadron 6, Patrol Force, Atlantic Fleet, making convoy escort during the war, and moved in 1919 to give support to the whites during the Russian civil war. USS New Orleans also escorted convoys, from New York City to ocean rendezvous with destroyer escorts off the British Isles, making the liaison with French coast until 16 January 1918. She was sent in the Pacific afterwards.


Wow- Whatif-rendition of USS Phoenix – An alleged early proposal for the scout cruiser of the Omaha class design. Was it real ? The name is totally fake, inspired by the following serie of cities, and is allegedly inspired by a successor design for the Chester class in 1917. They were definitely scouts, acting as “eyes” of the fleet as well as flotilla leaders. This was the “scout 1917 program”, the congress refused to vote because of its cost and fear it would be obsolete at completion. The congress revised its opinion the next year when voting the Omaha-class, actually going back to the 1916 naval program. According to Conway’s, this could well be the alternative 5,000 tonnes design proposed by C&R in 1917. The project was dropped because the heavy armament did not match shipbuilding realities on this displacement, combining a top speed of 35 knots.

There was also the valuable USN 20 knots+ armoured cruiser fleet: Sixteen heavily armed warships, in the 8,500-14,500 tonnes range in displacement. They were the old Cuban veterans, USS New York and Brooklyn, the six Pennsylvania class, three St Louis class and Five Tennesse class. The later were well protected, large, with nealry 2000 tonnes of coal capacity. They were able to escort convoys to the mid-Atlantic and well beyond.
USS New York became USS Rochester on 1 December 1917, and was part of the Atlantic fleet escort force, making three trips and then more to repatriate troops. USS Brooklyn was a receiving ship in Boston NyD when the war broke out, Atlantic Reserve Fleet. After Neutrality Patrols, she was sent in the Pacific.
USS St Louis was in escort of Group 4, American Expeditionary Force for escort duties, coast to coast. Milwaukee was stranded and a written off in 1917 while USS Charleston carried and escorted the American Expeditionary Force to France NYC to Saint Nazaire (five missions), repatriating veterans.
The Pennsylvania class were all renamed before the war broke out, from 1912 to 1916, even 1920 for USS South Dakota. These large cruisers were transferred to convoy escort duty in the North Atlantic. USS Pittsburg was in the Pacific chasing (without success) for German commerce raiders. USS Huntington operated an observation balloon to try to spot submerged U-Boats. USS San Diego became the only US Armoured Cruiser sank due to wartime operations: She hit a mine off Fire Island, New York, probably laid by U-156, or by a torpedo (Conways).
The Tennessee class were also renamed 1916 to 1920 and had a similar career during these short wartime operations. USS Tennesse was wrecked in August 1916 after a Tsunami and never recovered. The others, Memphis, Seattle, Charlotte and Missoula. USS Seattle experimented with observation seaplanes, having four of these and two catapults. She also served as flagship of the Destroyer Force and escort for the first American convoy to European waters. USS North Carolina (later Charlotte) became the first ship ever to launch an aircraft by catapult, on 5 September 1915.

Perhaps the “best card” of the USN in 1917 were the Chester class scouts. The 24-knots cruisers were the only true “scouts” of the navy and had quite an active career in 1917-18. All these cruisers were doomed by the signature of the Washington naval treaty. The tonnage ban concerning cruisers forced most of theme to be retired, sold in 1930 after a long reserve period, altough the carrier of a few went on until WW2 under various roles or simply were still extant after 50-60 years. Such was the case for:
-USS Despatch (ex-Atlanta), the doyen of USN cruisers, receiving ship at Yerba Buena until 1946.
-USS Baltimore was decomm. since 1922 and rested in Pearl Harbor. She was sold in 1942 as scrap metal.
-USS Olympia, preserved as a veteran of the Philippines in 1898 to this day, museum ship in Philadelphia.
-USS Yosemite (ex-San Francisco) decomm. 1921, was stricken since 1930 but sold in 1939 in Philadelphia.
-USS Rochester (ex-Saratoga, ex-New York), decomm. since 1933, receiving ship at Olomgapo, Philippines, scuttled to avoid capture by the Japanese in December 1941.
-USS Seattle, receiving ship in NyC until 1941, renamed IX39 as a misc. auxiliary and sold in 1946.

Of course, none of the Omaha class scout cruisers, laid down in December 1918 for the first two, seen anything of WW1. But they fully participated in WW2 in active roles and all survived, to be striken in 1945-46.


(GNB) Buyers Beware: Albany

Normally I wouldn't do one of these literally a day after the Tachibana one, but considering GNB ends in three or four days and people might be on the fence (katori says ''NOT FUCKING LIKELY''), I wanted to do another pros/cons list - I think it's a pretty concise, to the point format, and I hope you all enjoy it.

Specifically these 'ɻuyers Bewares'' aren't meant as full blown ship reviews or guides (like LWM's or any of the guides WoWS video makers do), but as a handy dandy reference to a ship - mainly whether it's good or bad and if it's for you or not. As a disclaimer, I am a strikingly average player - I have a firm grasp on the game mechanics (duh), but I'm nothing special skillwise. I've played these ships enough to have an idea of how good/bad they are, though.

So without further ado, we're doing the bad shit first as usual.

Albany is as far as I know the oldest ship in the game going by date of commissioning (two years earlier than even Mikasa). This has several in-game implications, both pros and cons.

The first implication is that she hails from an era of naval warfare where the prevailing opinion on speed was ''NO WE NEED MORE GUN'' (and also turbines weren't used on warships yet). This basically means she's really fucking slow. Now this is a theme among low tier shitcans, but Albany just takes it to the next level, with a top speed of a whopping TWENTY (20) KNOTS. For comparison, the next slowest tier 2 cruisers (Dresden and Chester) both make 24 knots. At her tier, Albany is only exceeded in slowness by Mikasa, and she's. uh, yeah.

Range. While it's not as bad as it used to be (I got Albany back when they gave them away last summer, and back then she had 6.7km base range - she has 8.5km now), she's still outranged by literally every tier 2 cruiser ever. Hell she's fucking outranged by the tier 1 gunboats that's how absolutely fucking terrible her range is. Combine this with her slow speed and she'll often struggle to bring her guns to bear. If you have a slow HDD, don't bother with this ship.

Poorly armoured citadel but it's a fucking protected cruiser this surprises absolutely nobody.

Tied with Chester for lightest broadside in its tier, barrel count-wise, being capable of bringing a maximum of four guns to bear on a target. Dresden and Emden have lighter guns, but at least they can constantly rain fury (fun-sized fury) all over someone's face. Albany has 6'' guns, which means RELOAD TIMESSSSSSSSSSS

The light broadside hurts even more when you consider the piss fucking poor HE shell alpha and fire chance. Even Novik's 120mm guns have better base fire chance. Like all low tier shells, Albany's shells aspire to be rainbows, too, and perpetually lament the fact the only colour they'll ever flash is orange (or blue if you're a DIRTY MODDER).

Pretty mehsome HP pool at 16.5k, only exceeded by Novik in sheer shittiness.

Her base concealment range is 8.6km. Her gun range is 8.5km. Like a mini Pensacola syndrome kinda thing.

Tier 2 cruiser with tier 2 cruiser woes. AP is an endangered species at this tier and Albany's piss poor citadel armour means you'll spend most of your time on fire and lose engines a lot. Cruiser kit means your DCP cooldown is about two years. Even with her premium status, she earns fuck all in terms of silver.

Okay but it's honestly not all bad. Believe me.

Albany is as far as I know the oldest ship in the game. This means she has that stupid protected cruiser armour layout that makes tier 2 cruisers fucking irritating as hell to citadel. Not an advantage specific to Albany, but it's something.

The shells actually aren't all bad. The HE alpha is trash, yeah, but it also has 1150 krupp (compare this to Chikuma's HE shells - 500 more alpha, but a krupp value of 320). Given the fact tier 2 ships lose engines and what have you like it's nobody's business, this makes Albany irritating as shit.

Her AP shells are great. In the sense of they're not as shit as everybody else's AP shells. Relatively high alpha (3k), high penetration, and 8 degrees of normalisation (kind of bog standard at this tier, but it's a pretty good value - better than some high tier CAs get) means flinging AP at shorter ranges is pretty viable.

If Albany's hull shape was like a weiner, itɽ be like /u/horsememes' - relatively short and narrow. Is this joke getting old yet? What this means in practice is that she can be sorta difficult to hit sometimes, but far more importantly she has an absolutely godly turning circle of only 350 meters. She has an awkwardly long rudder shift time of 7 seconds to balance it out, but once Albany gets turning, SHE GETS TURNING. In car terms, it's like going round a corner in a tiny hatchback without power steering - turns tight as hell, but requires a bit of effort.

She has secondary guns. They're 120mm and have next to no range but they make pretty fireworks.

She has good AA. For a tier 2 cruiser. Essentially this means ''she has AA''.

And now the big one - the main advantage Albany has, the thing that makes it worth enduring the shitty speed and range and the fact it's a tier 2 cruiser - she looks pimp as fuck. She has one of those big pimpin' golden bow crests that add nothing to her combat performance and just make her heavier but are just there to look stupidly cool. She has a stern crest of similar pimpness too. She has this gorgeous coat of white point (GREAT WHITE FLEET) and a superstructure consisting largely of pretty dark wood and brass everywhere. Albany is the absolute gaudiest ship in the game - it's like a shitty old car that handles like an aircraft carrier and makes about 40mph on a good day with the wind at its back, but that you drive anyway because you feel like the raddest dude in the known universe when you're driving it.

This needs a second bullet point. Albany is gorgeous.

So yeah. To sum it up: painfully mediocre tier 2 cruiser with decent AP shells that looks like a bit like if the national treasury was a ship. If you don't give a shit about combat performance/retraining/silver grinding and just want to shoot your kind of stupid AP at seals in your gaudy pimpboat, there is simply nothing like Albany. You'll spend most of your time on fire, but if you're the kind of player who plays tier 2 for laughs, Albany's a great boat to pick up, though I figure most people will go for either Smith or Katori instead.

For returning players, her range and view range have been buffed since last summer.

ps: if the reception to this ''guide'' is similar to the Tachibana one's, I might start writing these weekly - I enjoy writing them a ton, they take an hour to write at most and it's a pretty great bonus if they actually help someone decide whether they should get a boat or not.

This one ended up longer than I thought. I just have a lot to say about Albaeny, I suppose.


Contents

The Oregon City-class cruisers were a modified version of the previous Baltimore-class design the main difference was a more compact pyramidal superstructure with single trunked funnel, intended to improve the arcs of fire of the anti-aircraft (AA) guns. The same type of modification also differentiated the Cleveland and Fargo classes of light cruisers. [1]

Ten ships were authorized for the class with three being completed and the fourth suspended during construction. The final six ships were cancelled, five after being laid down. [2] Construction on the incomplete fourth ship was resumed in 1948 and the ship served as a command ship Northampton (CLC-1) . All three completed cruisers were commissioned in 1946. Oregon City was decommissioned after only 22 months of service, one of the shortest active careers of any World War II-era cruiser. Albany was later converted into a guided missile ship, becoming the lead ship of the Albany class and served until 1980. A similar conversion was planned for Rochester but was cancelled.


The Later Years of the USS Albany

During her foreign cruises, the USS Albany participated in many naval exercises with friendly foreign naval units. She was again decommissioned from March 1, 1967, until November 9, 1968, as she underwent another series of modifications. The cruiser spent a third period of decommissioning from 1973 until May 1974 during a major overhaul at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Upon her recommissioning, she operated out of her homeport in Norfolk, soon becoming the flagship of the Second Fleet.

After the honor of serving as the flagship of the Second Fleet, the USS Albany had her homeport shifted to Gaeta, Italy, where she served as the flagship of the Sixth Fleet from 1976 until 1980. The cruiser was decommissioned for the last time on August 29, 1980. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on June 30, 1985 and sold for scrap in 1990. Part of the cruiser’s bow is kept at the Albany County Fairgrounds in Altamont, NY.


Protected Cruiser Albany - History

W orld War 1 at Sea

by Gordon Smith, Naval-History.Net

Naval War in Outline
US Navy Ship Names
Warship numbers and losses, 1914-18
Losses by year
Key to main characteristics including US Torpedo and Gun Calibres
Main ship types - Dreadnoughts to Submarines

The US Navy inflicted few losses on the German Navy - one definite U-boat plus others possibly mined in the huge North Sea barrage laid in part by the US Navy between Scotland and Norway. Also few major ships were lost to enemy action - one armoured cruiser and two destroyers. However the large and still expanding US Navy came to play an important role in the Atlantic and Western European waters, as well as the Mediterranean after the declaration of war in April 1917.

Most of the battlefleet stayed in American waters because of the shortage of fuel oil in Britain, but five coal-burning dreadnoughts served with the British Grand Fleet as the 6th Battle Squadron (US Battleship Division 9) tipping the balance of power against the German High Seas Fleet even further in favour of the Allies. They were also present at the surrender of the German Fleet. Other dreadnoughts (Battleship Division 6) were based in Berehaven, Bantry Bay, SW Ireland to counter any break-out by German battlecruisers to attack US troop convoys. Some of the pre-dreadnoughts, armoured cruisers and protected cruisers were employed as convoy escorts, 1917-18 both along the coasts of the Americas and in the Atlantic.

All three scout cruisers of the 'Chester' class together with some old gunboats and destroyers spent part of 1917-18 based at Gibraltar on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic approaches. The destroyers were part of the at least 36 United States destroyers that reached European waters in 1917-18, many of them based at Queenstown, Ireland, and St Nazaire and Brest, France. Their main duties were patrol and convoy escort, especially the protection of US troopship convoys.


US Submarine K.5 in 1919

Some of the 'K' class (K.5 above) submarines were based in the Azores and 'L' class at Berehaven, Bantry Bay, Ireland on anti-U-boat patrols 1917-18.

In 1917 the programme of large ship construction was suspended to concentrate on destroyers (including the large 'flush decker' classes, 50 of which ended up in the Royal Navy in 1940), submarine-chasers, submarines, and merchantmen to help replace the tremendous losses due to unrestricted U-boat attacks. Some of the destroyers and especially the sub-chasers ended up in the Mediterranean, patrolling the Otranto Barrage designed to keep German and Austrian U-boats locked up in the Adriatic Sea.


Watch the video: SMS Emden-The Swan of the East