Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline

Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Women’s history is full of trailblazers in the fight for equality in the United States. From Abigail Adams imploring her husband to “remember the ladies” when envisioning a government for the American colonies, to suffragists like Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton fighting for women's right to vote, to the rise of feminism and Hillary Clinton becoming the first female nominee for president by a major political party, American women have long fought for equal footing throughout the nation’s history.

And while some glass ceilings have been shattered (see: Title IX), others remain. But progress continues to be made. As Clinton said while accepting her nomination, “When there are no ceilings, the sky's the limit.”

Below is a timeline of notable events in U.S. women’s history.

Abigail Adams, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth

March 31, 1776: In a letter to her husband, Founding Father John Adams, future first lady Abigail Adams makes a plea to him and the Continental Congress to “remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.”

July 19-20, 1848: In the first women’s rights convention organized by women, the Seneca Falls Convention is held in New York, with 300 attendees, including organizers Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Sixty-eight women and 32 men (including Frederick Douglass) sign the Declaration of Sentiments, which sparked decades of activism, eventually leading to the passage of the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote.

READ MORE: Why the 19th Amendment Did Not Guarantee All Women the Right to Vote

January 23, 1849: Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first woman to graduate from medical school and become a doctor in the United States. Born in Bristol, England, she graduated from Geneva College in New York with the highest grades in her entire class.

May 29, 1851: A former slave turned abolitionist and women’s rights activist, Sojourner Truth delivers her famous "Ain't I a Woman?" speech at the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. “And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne 13 children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?”

Dec. 10, 1869: The legislature of the territory of Wyoming passes America’s first woman suffrage law, granting women the right to vote and hold office. In 1890, Wyoming is the 44th state admitted to the Union and becomes the first state to allow women the right to vote.

READ MORE: Early Women’s Rights Activists Wanted Much More than Suffrage

Suffrage Movement, 19th Amendment

May 15, 1869: Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton found the National Woman Suffrage Association, which coordinated the national suffrage movement. In 1890, the group teamed with the American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

October 16, 1916: Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States. Located in Brownsville, Brooklyn, her clinic was deemed illegal under the “Comstock Laws” forbidding birth control, and the clinic was raided on October 26, 1916. When she had to close two additional times due to legal threats, she closed the clinic and eventually founded the American Birth Control League in 1921—the precursor to today’s Planned Parenthood.

April 2, 1917: Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a longtime activist with the National Woman Suffrage Association, is sworn in as the first woman elected to Congress as a member of the House of Representatives.

Aug. 18, 1920: Ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is completed, declaring “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” It is nicknamed “The Susan B. Anthony Amendment” in honor of her work on behalf of women’s suffrage.

May 20-21, 1932: Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman, and second pilot ever (Charles Lindbergh was first) to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic.

Rosa Parks, Civil Rights, Equal Pay

Dec. 1, 1955: Black seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Ala. The move helps launch the civil rights movement.

May 9, 1960: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the first commercially produced birth control pill in the world, allowing women to control when and if they have children. Margaret Sanger initially commissioned “the pill” with funding from heiress Katherine McCormick.

June 10, 1963: President John F. Kennedy signs into law the Equal Pay Act, prohibiting sex-based wage discrimination between men and women performing the same job in the same workplace.

July 2, 1964: President Lyndon B. Johnson, signs the Civil Rights Act into law; Title VII bans employment discrimination based on race, religion, national origin or sex.

June 30, 1966: Betty Friedan, author of 1963’s The Feminine Mystique, helps found the National Organization for Women (NOW), using, as the organization now states, “grassroots activism to promote feminist ideals, lead societal change, eliminate discrimination, and achieve and protect the equal rights of all women and girls in all aspects of social, political, and economic life.”

READ MORE: Six Unsung Heroines of the Civil Rights Movement

Title IX, Battle of the Sexes

June 23, 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments is signed into law by President Richard Nixon. It states “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."

Jan. 22, 1973: In its landmark 7-2 Roe v. Wade decision, the U.S. Supreme Court declares that the Constitution protects a woman’s legal right to an abortion.

Sept. 20, 1973: In “The Battle of the Sexes,” tennis great Billie Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in straight sets during an exhibition match aired on primetime TV and drawing 90 million viewers. “I thought it would set us back 50 years if I didn’t win that match,” King says after the match. “It would ruin the women’s [tennis] tour and affect all women’s self-esteem.”

Sandra Day O'Connor, Sally Ride

July 7, 1981: Sandra Day O’Connor is sworn in by President Ronald Reagan as the first woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. She retires in 2006, after serving for 24 years.

June 18 1983: Flying on the Space Shuttle Challenger, Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space.

July 12, 1984: Democratic presidential nominee Walter Mondale names U.S. Rep. Geraldine Ferraro (N.Y.) as his running mate, making her the first woman vice president nominee by a major party.

March 12, 1993: Nominated by President Bill Clinton, Janet Reno is sworn in as the first female attorney general of the United States.

Jan. 23, 1997: Also nominated by Clinton, Madeleine Albright is sworn in as the nation’s first female secretary of state.

Sept. 13, 1994: Clinton signs the Violence Against Women Act as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, providing funding for programs that help victims of domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, stalking and other gender-related violence.

Nancy Pelosi, Hillary Clinton

Jan. 4, 2007: U.S. Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) becomes the first female speaker of the House. In 2019, she reclaims the title, becoming the first lawmaker to hold the office two times in more than 50 years.

Jan. 24, 2013: The U.S. military removes a ban against women serving in combat positions.

July 26, 2016: Hillary Clinton becomes the first woman to receive a presidential nomination from a major political party. During her speech at the Democratic National Convention, she says, “Standing here as my mother's daughter, and my daughter's mother, I'm so happy this day has come.”

January 20, 2021: Kamala Harris is sworn in as the first woman and first woman of color vice president of the United States. "While I may be the first woman in this office, I will not be the last," Harris said after getting elected in November.

The daughter of Jamaican and Indian immigrants, Harris served as California’s first Black female attorney general and won election to the U.S. Senate in 2016. She made her own unsuccessful presidential bid before being selected by former vice president Joe Biden as his running mate.

READ MORE: 7 Women Leaders That Were Elected to Highest Office








Sources

Timeline of Legal History of Women in the United States, National Women’s History Alliance

Seneca Falls Convention, Library of Congress

Sojourner Truth’s "Ain’t I A Woman?” Sojourner Truth Memorial

Woman Suffrage, National Geographic Society

Suffragists Unite: National American Woman Suffrage Association, National Women’s History Museum

A record number of women will be serving in the new Congress. PEWResearch.org.

A List of Firsts for Women In This Year’s Midterm Elections. NPR.org.


Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline - HISTORY

Coming soon to Internet Explorer 8. This web is currently best experienced in Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or IE 10+.

Agnodice

Recognized as one of the first female gynecologists, Agnodice is said to have courageously practiced medicine in Greece when women faced the death penalty for doing so. Eventually caught, she was vindicated and allowed to continue when patients came to her defense.

Despite extraordinary medical advances throughout history, more than 800 women still die every day from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth – 99 per cent of them in developing countries.

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

Following criticism for studying secular texts, celebrated writer and nun Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz of Mexico memorably defended women’s rights to education in 1691 by proclaiming “one can perfectly well philosophize while cooking supper." A national icon, today she appears on Mexican currency.


Abigail Adams, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth

March 31, 1776: In a letter to her husband, Founding Father John Adams, future first lady Abigail Adams makes a plea to him and the Continental Congress to “remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.”

The Seneca Falls Convention (TV-PG 4:18)

July 19-20, 1848: In the first women’s rights convention organized by women, the Seneca Falls Convention is held in New York, with 300 attendees, including organizers Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott. Sixty-eight women and 32 men sign the Declaration of Sentiments, which sparked decades of activism, eventually leading to the passage of the 19th Amendment.

May 29, 1851: A former slave turned abolitionist and women’s rights activist, Sojourner Truth delivers her famous “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech at the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. “And ain’t I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And ain’t I …read more


Women’s history timeline

630 – 612 BCE – Sappho the ancient Greek poet was born on the island of Lesbos. Sappho’s poetry, which was greatly admired, centred on love and passion for people of both genders. The word lesbian is derived from the name of her island of birth.

69 BCE – Cleopatra was born. She was the last person to rule Egypt as a pharoe. After her death Egypt became a Roman province.

60-61 BCE – Boudica, Queen of the Iceni (a Celti tribe in Norfolk) led an uprising against the Roman governor, burning Colchester and London before being defeated in battle. Boudica and her daughters kill themselves after the defeat.

240 BCE – Zenobia was a 3rd Century Syrian queen who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. By 269 she had conquered Egypt which she ruled for five years before being overthrown and put to death.

912 CE – King Alfred the Great’s eldest daughter Aethelflaed became a political and military leader after her husband died in battle with the Vikings. After her father’s death she went on to rule the area of the midlands then known as Mercia. Aethelflaed was known as a formidable military tactician.

960 CE – Gudit was an African queen who rampaged through Ethiopia, destroying monuments and churches. After wiping out the ruling dynasty and killing the emporor, she took his throne and reigned for 40 years.

1141 – disputed reign of Matilda, Holy Roman Empress and daughter of Henry I of England. Matilda was declared heir by her father and accepted by the English Barons, but the throne was seized by her cousin Stephen. In the war which followed, Matilda is best known for escaping from her prison by running across the snow in a white dress. In 1153 Stephen agreed to make Matilda’s son Henry his heir.

1412 – On January 6th 1412 Joan of Arc (saint, military leader, mystic) was born. She was burnt at the stake just 19 years later on May 30th 1431 after she helped restore the King of France to his throne in the Hundred Years War.

1480 – It was around this time that the medieval witch hunts began. From between 1480 and 1700 it is believed an estimated 40,000 – 100,000 women were executed as a result of witchcraft trials in Europe and Northern America.

1553 (10-19 July) – The nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, who was placed on the throne by enemies of the Catholic Princess Mary. Jane Grey was executed at the age of 16 or 17.

1553-1558 – reign of Mary I

1558-1604 – reign of Elizabeth I

1625 – On February 3rd 1625 La Liberazione di Ruggiero – the first known opera to be composed by a woman – had it’s debut performance in Florence, Italy. It’s composer was 38-year-old Francesca Caccini, an Italian composer, singer, lute player, poet and music teacher. She was one of the best known and most influencial European female composers of the era, and wrote or co-wrote 16 staged works in her lifetime.

1645 – Matthew Hopkins, better known as the infamous ‘Witchfinder General’ began his career by finding Elizabeth Clarke, an 80-year-old woman with only one leg, guilty of witchcraft. She was excuted by hanging in Manningtree, Essex.

1689-1694 – joint reign of Mary II and William of Orange

1702-1714 – reign of Anne. The 1707 Act of Union made Anne the first ruler of Great Britain.

1792 – Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

1805 – Mary Seacole was born. Born in Jamaica, Mary’s mother was a Jamaican nurse who kept a boarding house for invalid soldiers. Mary’s father in fact was a Scottish soldier himself. After learning nursing skills from her mother, Mary opened her own hotel for sick soldiers in Jamaica. But when the Crimean war began around the Black Sea in Europe in 1854, Mary was determined to offer her services. The British War Office turned down her services so Seacole went by herself and set up her own ‘hotel’, providing a resting place for sick and convalescing soldiers. She also visited the battlefields, often under fire, to nurse the wounded and became known as ‘Mother Seacole’. Her reputation rivaled Florence Nightingale.

1816 – On January 8th Sophie Germain was awarded a grand prize by the French Academy of Sciences for work on the mathematics of vibration, foundational to the construction of skyscrapers today.

1837-1901 – reign of Victoria

1867 – John Stuart Mill called for the inclusion of women’s suffrage in the Reform Act of 1867 in a petition that he presented to Parliament.

1873 – Margaret Bondfield born. Campaigned for pensions and was member of the National Pensions Committee which helped bring about the 1908 Old Age Pension Act – the world’s first act on pensions.

1879 – On May 30th 1879 Vanessa Bell, who is considered to be one of the major contributors to 20th Century British portrait drawing and landscape was born.

1880 – Mary Macarthur born. Campaigned tirelessly for women of all classes through union and suffrage movements and was also an anti war campaigner.

1882 – On January 25th 1882 English author, essayist, publisher, and writer of short stories Virginia Woolf was born. Woolf is regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.

1903 – Marie Curie wins the Nobel Prize for her work on radioactivity and the discovery of radium.

1903 – The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) is founded by Emmeline Pankhurst, along with her daughters Sylvia and Christabel.

1905 – On October 10th Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney are the first women to be arrested in the fight for women’s votes.

1906 – Mary Macarthur founds the National Federation of Women Workers (NFWW).

1908 Suffragettes chain themselves to the railings of Number 10 Downing Street.

1 913 – Suffragette Emily Wilding Davison is killed after throwing herself in front of the Kings horse at the Epsom Derby.

1918 – Women over the age of 30 given the vote (UK)

1928 – Women given the vote on the same terms as men (UK)

1928 – Radcliffe Hall’s controversial novel about a lesbian relationship ‘The Well of Loneliness’ was published. Within weeks it was declared obscene and withdrawn from the shelves, leaving the author facing an obscenity trial.

1938 – Virginia Woolf’s groundbreaking feminist anti militarist essay, The Three Guineas is published. Woolf wrote the essay to answer three questions, each from a different society: From an anti-war society: “How should war be prevented?” From a women’s college building fund: “Why does the government not support education for women?” (Actually, the fund was a metaphor for family private funds to send the “boys of the family” to college and not the women. Woolf questioned this practice, but it was never about government supported schooling for women, but for all people) From a society promoting employment of professional women: “Why are women not allowed to engage in professional work?” 1941 – The National Service act was passed which introduced conscription for unmarried women between the age of 20 and 30.

1945 – On June 19th Burma’s pro-democracy leader and Nobel Peace laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi is born.

1947 – Newly independent India decrees there should be no discrimination against women on basis of gender alone.

1949 – Simone De Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex.

1952 – The coronation of Elizabeth II.

1955 – Rosa Parks unwitting sparked the black civil rights movement in the USA when she refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white man in Montgomery, Alabama.

1959 – T he Tibetan Women’s Uprising. It was March 12, 1959 a day after the NationalUprising Day, thousands of women gathered infront of the PotalaPalace in Lhasa to peacefully protest against the illegal occupationof Tibet. Chinese authorities responded by restoring to brute forceand arrested the leaders of the movement and many other innocent women. They were sentenced to indefinite prison terms, and manyof them were mercilessly beaten to death. However, these repressivemeasures did not dampen the women’s courage. They did not let themselves be cowered by the Chinese. The historical event was the spark thatinitiated the Tibetan women’s movement for Freedom. The Tibetan Women’s Uprising Day on March 12 was memorialized by all the regional branches of the Tibetan Women’sAssociation in India, Nepal and overseas. The commemoration is observedevery year with the prayers for those who sacrificed their livesfor the national cause. TWA statements are released and variousactivities such as candle vigils, peaceful demonstrations, peacemarches, hunger strikes, shouting slogans, showing banners, distributionsof pamphlets and press conferences are organised at different venues. The appeal letter to the United Nations,UN Human Rights Commission, and also to the President of People’sRepublic of China is also submitted

1961 – Marie Stopes Clinic starts sessions for unmarried women to gain advice and access to birth control – something which was previously taboo.

1963 – Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space when the Vostok 6 orbits the earth 38 times.

1963 – Betty Friedan publishes the feminist classic The Feminine Mystique.

1967 – Dame Cicely Saunders founds the worlds first hospice, St Christophers in Sydenham, South London.

1967 – The Abortion Act became law, legalising abortion under certain conditions.

1969 – No marital fault required – breakdown of marriage made grounds for divorce.

1970 – Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch is published.

1975 – The Sex Discrimination Act and The Equal Pay Act were introduced in Britain.

1976 – Jayaben Desai becomes the main voice of a group of workers striking against racist work practices at Grunwick film processing factory in North West London. It was the first strike of BME workers that garnered mainstream union support. However once heavy policing tactics were used on the strikers union support started to evaporate. The struggle continued for another two years and in the end the strike was lost but Desai had become a national figure and a vocal opponent of sexism and racism in the work place.

1977 – Jacqueline Means ordained After an “irregular” ordination, Jacqueline Means was formally and officially ordained by the Episcopal Church (USA), making her the first woman ordained in the Episcopal Church with official sanction.

1979 – On May 4th Margaret Thatcher was elected Conservative Prime Minister

1981 – On September 5th the Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp was born. On the 5th September 1981, the Welsh group “Women for Life on Earth” arrived on Greenham Common, Berkshire, England. They marched from Cardiff with the intention of challenging, by debate, the decision to site 96 Cruise nuclear missiles there. On arrival they delivered a letter to the Base Commander which among other things stated ‘We fear for the future of all our children and for the future of the living world which is the basis of all life’.

1991 – Rape within marriage is finally made illegal.

1997 – Labour election victory doubles the amount of female MPs, doubling the number of female MPs from 9% to 18% – a historic first.

2007 – Jacqui Smith becomes the first female home secretary.

2009- in February 2009 the Aldermaston Women’s Peace Campaigners won the right to continue their legal protest.

2010 – First female Muslim MPs elected to parliament. Rushanara Ali, Shabana Mahmood and Yasmin Qureshi are all labour MPs.


Decade by Decade: Major Events in Women’s History

In honor of women's history month, we have chosen one significant event from each decade over the past century. Each event recognizes the achievements of women in all facets of life who moved history forward:

1903: Marie Curie becomes the first woman to receive Nobel Prize

The chemist and physicist is most famous for her pioneering work in the field of radioactivity.

She discovered the chemical element polonium in 1898, which she named after her native country Poland. Together with her husband Pierre, the duo announced the existence of another element—radium. In 1903, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work.

Curie received her second Nobel Prize in 1911, making her the only person to win in two different science fields (physics and chemistry). Her work was crucial in the development of x-rays in surgery. (Bettmann/Corbis)

1912: Girl Scouts of America is founded

Juliette Gordon Low started the all-girls club in Savannah, Georgia, with the aim of promoting social welfare by encouraging members to participate in community service and outdoor activities.

Among the many famous girl scouts alumni are: Lucille Ball, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Nancy Reagan and Gloria Steinem.

Today the organization has around 3.7 million members. (Bettmann/Corbis)

1920: Women in the U.S. are given the right to vote

On August 18, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution was ratified, guaranteeing all American women the right to vote.

It was a major victory for advocates of women's rights, who had been campaigning for women's suffrage for decades. (Bettman/Corbis)

1932: Amelia Earhart flies solo across the Atlantic

Amelia Earhart set many aviation records and became the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross. A ten-minute flight in 1920 forged her passion for flying.

After completing her first solo bid across the Atlantic, Earhart's next ambition focused on becoming the first woman to fly around the world. On June 1, 1937 she and a companion set off in a twin-engine Lockheed Electra from Miami and landed in Lae, New Guinea, 28 days later. They departed Lae on July 2 towards Howland Island, 2,556 miles away. They never arrived.

The cause of their disappearance is unknown but many believe that the aircraft ran out of fuel and crashed. Today, Earhart's legacy lives on and she is generally regarded as a feminist icon. (Bettman/Corbis)

1942: Women serve in the armed forces during World War II

The U.S. Army established the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (later known as Women's Army Corps, WAC) and recruited around 150,000 women in roles such as radio operators, mechanics and laboratory technicians during World War II.

In 1978, the WAC was disestablished by an act of Congress, as a means to assimilate women more closely into the structure of the Army. (Swim Ink 2, LLC/Corbis)

1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama

Parks was arrested and charged with violating a city ordinance that segregated passengers by race. This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which lasted 381 days, until segregation on buses ended.

Park's protests played an important role in raising awareness of African American civil rights. (Corbis)

1966: National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded by Betty Goldstein Friedan

The National Organization for Women was founded in Washington, D.C. by 28 women and men with the aim to "to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society."

Today, NOW is the largest and most comprehensive feminist advocacy group in the United States. (Bettman Corbis)

1973: American tennis champion Billie Jean King defeats champion player Bobby Riggs in a "Battle of the Sexes" match

In 1973, Riggs, a former World No. 1 player, challenged King to a match that promoters dubbed 'Battle of the Sexes'. He vowed that a top female player would not be able to beat him.

Watched by an estimated 50 million people in 37 countries, King beat Riggs in three straight sets. The match brought women's tennis into the limelight.

Today, King continues to champion for women's rights in sports. (Bettman/Corbis)

1983: Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space

Ride joined NASA in 1978 after answering a newspaper ad seeking applicants for the space program.

In June 1983, she and four other astronauts made the historical six-day flight on the space shuttle Challenger.

To date, around 41 women in the US have flown into orbit. (Bettman/Corbis)

1994 Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act

The Violence Against Women Act is a landmark piece of legislation that sought to improve criminal justice and community-based responses to domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault and stalking in the United States. It was passed with an unprecedented $1.6 billion dollar budget.

In 2005, Congress reauthorized the act and expanded the scope of the bill to include the protection of child victims and immigrants. (Mark Peterson/Corbis)

2007: Nancy Pelosi becomes the first female speaker of House of Representatives


Historical Timeline

Learn more about Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos history in this timeline, beginning with its founding in 1884.

1884 &ndash On May 31, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is founded as New York Cancer Hospital at 106th Street and Central Park West in Manhattan. New York Cancer Hospital is the first institution in the United States devoted exclusively to the treatment of cancer.

1887 &ndash New York Cancer Hospital, a 70-bed facility, receives its first patients on December 7.

1893 &ndashWilliam B. Coley is appointed as an attending surgeon. One of the American pioneers in modern clinical research, Dr. Coley developed an early form of immunotherapy in which he treated sarcoma with the toxins of a bacterial skin infection to induce the body&rsquos immune system to target and destroy tumors.

1899 &ndash The original name of the hospital is changed from New York Cancer Hospital to General Memorial Hospital for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases.

1902 &ndash Mrs. Collis P. Huntington gives $100,000 to General Memorial Hospital in memory of her husband to establish the first cancer research fund in the country, which gave a new impetus for treatment and research.

1902 &ndash Just two years after the discovery of X-rays, Memorial Hospital pioneers their use in cancer therapy.

1912 &ndash James Douglas, a scientist and philanthropist, gives $100,000 to General Memorial Hospital for the endowment of ten beds for clinical research work, and the equipment for an X-ray plant and clinical laboratory.

1913 &ndash James Ewing is appointed as a pathologist at Memorial Hospital. Under his guidance and with his subsequent appointments as Director of Cancer Research and President of the Medical Board, Memorial Hospital attains worldwide recognition in the diagnosis and management of tumors and other lesions caused by the abnormal proliferation of cells in the body.

1915 &ndash Dr. Ewing, working with Dr. Douglas, establishes a radium department and lays the foundation in the United States for radiation therapy.

1916 &ndash The name of the hospital becomes Memorial Hospital for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases.

1919 &ndash Dr. Ewing publishes the first edition of Neoplastic Diseases: A Text-Book on Tumors. The book, which is translated into numerous languages, becomes a cornerstone of modern oncology by establishing a systematic and comprehensive basis for diagnosing human cancer.

1920 &ndash Memorial Hospital establishes the first radiation research laboratory in the United States.

1921 &mdash Marie Curie, the co-discoverer of radium who won Nobel Prizes in both physics and chemistry, visits Memorial Hospital during a tour of the United States.

1927 &ndash Memorial Hospital establishes the nation&rsquos first fellowship training program. Within a decade, Memorial Hospital trains fellows who come from about 30 states and 20 countries.

1931 &ndash The General Electric Company loans the hospital a 700,000-volt X-ray machine, and the hospital erects a building to accommodate the equipment.

1939 &ndash Memorial Hospital moves from its original location to its current location on the Upper East Side, between 67th and 68th Streets and First and York Avenues, on land donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. The new building includes the first and only ward in the world for children with cancer.

1939 &ndash A one-million-volt x-ray machine, then the largest of its kind for treating cancer, is installed at Memorial Hospital.

1940 &ndash Elise Strang L&rsquoEsperance, a pathologist at Memorial Hospital, along with her sister, May Strang, founds the Kate Depew Strang Cancer Prevention Clinic, which becomes a prototype for cancer detection clinics throughout the United States. The success of the clinic, originally housed within Memorial Hospital, leads to the construction of a separate building adjacent to the hospital in 1947.

1945 &ndash Philanthropist and industrialist Alfred P. Sloan and inventor and industrialist Charles F. Kettering join forces to establish the Sloan Kettering Institute, which today is the basic research arm of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

1946 &ndash Teams of investigators, including those from Memorial Hospital and Sloan Kettering Institute, report that the nitrogen mustards developed as chemical warfare agents can be used effectively against certain forms of cancer. The findings lead to the development of chemotherapy as a treatment for cancer.

1947 &ndash Through a gift of $4,000,000 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the 13-story Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research opens. Devoted solely to the study of cancer, the structure is Sloan Kettering Institute&rsquos first laboratory building and is the largest private cancer research facility in the world.

1950 &ndash The Helena Woolworth McCann Children&rsquos Pavilion, which more than doubles the bed capacity for children at Memorial Hospital, opens.

1952 &ndash A new compound, called 6 MP, capable of inducing remissions in more than half of children suffering from acute leukemia, is developed at Memorial Sloan Kettering in collaboration with investigators from Wellcome Research Laboratories.

1954 &ndash Memorial Hospital and Sloan Kettering Institute pioneer the application of computers to radiation treatment planning, and start the first computerized treatment plan program in the country.

1957 &ndash A Sloan Kettering Institute researcher discovers a virus in mice that causes rapidly progressive leukemia, adding to the evidence that viruses cause some forms of cancer.

1959 &ndash Research on immunotherapy accelerates when Sloan Kettering Institute scientists, using microbial products, successfully prevent and treat cancer in mice.

1960 &ndash To more efficiently and effectively apply advances in the laboratory to the treatment of patients in the clinic, Memorial Hospital and the Sloan Kettering Institute incorporate to become Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

1964 &ndash Sloan Kettering Institute&rsquos research program and capabilities are significantly expanded with the dedication of the Kettering Laboratory, an 11-story building furnished with state-of-the-art equipment.

1967 &ndash The computerized radiation therapy treatment planning service, pioneered in 1954 by Memorial Hospital and Sloan Kettering Institute, is extended with the inauguration of a coast-to-coast computer treatment planning program. Memorial Hospital begins using the first-of-its-kind system, and &ndash by means of computers and teletype machines &ndash treatment plans could be transmitted to other hospitals within 15 minutes.

1969 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens the world&rsquos first Pediatric Day Hospital to care for children and young adults with cancer on an outpatient basis, allowing them to return home on the day of treatment.

1971 &ndash Surgical researchers devise a method for preserving the viability of donor livers for transplant, improving the portability of donor organs and leading to an increase in the number of potential donors.

1971 &ndash Congress passes the National Cancer Act. With the Act&rsquos implementation, Memorial Sloan Kettering is one of only three institutions in the country to be designated as a Comprehensive Cancer Center, charged with translating laboratory research results into clinical practice.

1973 &ndash The new 19-story Memorial Hospital opens. It consists of single and double rooms, and enables the hospital to provide the highest quality care to all patients. The hospital is designed so that nearly each floor is a self-contained unit equipped to handle most patient-care needs.

1973 &ndash Our physicians are involved in the first bone marrow transplant from an unrelated donor to a patient. This opens the possibility of a transplant to the majority of patients who do not have a sibling who is a bone marrow match.

1976 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering scientists develop a method for detecting tumor-specific antigens in some types of cancer &ndash information that is essential for developing specific tumor vaccines.

1976 &ndash The largest collection of human tumor cell lines in tissue culture is established at the Sloan Kettering Institute.

1977 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering becomes the first cancer center to establish a full-time psychiatry service devoted solely to treating psychiatric and psychological problems unique to cancer patients, training young psychiatrists and psychologists in these issues, and conducting clinical research. Having pioneered the development of psychiatry in the oncology setting, the department serves as the first and largest national resource for training and research in psychiatric oncology.

1977 &ndash The Arnold and Marie Schwartz International Hall of Science for Cancer Research, a research facility designed to enable investigators to focus on the cells and tissues of the human body, opens.

1979 &ndash The Breast Examination Center of Harlem (BECH) is founded, establishing a reputation in the Harlem community for free, high-quality care. An outreach program of Memorial Sloan Kettering, BECH has screened more than 204,000 women for breast cancer.

1981 &ndash The James T. Murray Pediatric Day Hospital opens, enlarging the Pediatric Day Hospital that opened in 1969 and providing expanded treatment and recreational facilities for young outpatients.

1982 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering establishes the nation&rsquos first Pain Service, dedicated to developing more-effective treatments for patients with pain that is acute, chronic, or difficult to manage.

1988 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos Post-Treatment Resource Program (as of 2011 called the Resources for Life After Cancer Program) is established, offering a broad range of support services for cancer survivors and their families including consultations, seminars, workshops, and professionally-led support groups. The program has served thousands of cancer survivors and is a model for cancer support programs at comprehensive cancer centers around the country.

1989 &ndash The Rockefeller Research Laboratories building opens in May. It currently houses a number of Sloan Kettering Institute research programs as well as some Memorial Hospital research laboratories. Located on the south side of 67th Street between First and York Avenues, the building is dedicated to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. &ndash one of Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos visionary supporters.

1991 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens its new outpatient facility in October. Known as the Enid A. Haupt Pavilion, this location includes the Radiation Oncology Center, the Surgical Day Hospital, and Physician Office Suites.

1994 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers lead a study which finds that removing precancerous polyps in the colon can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by as much as 90 percent. The findings also confirm the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screenings.

1995 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens its first regional outpatient facility in October. Located on Phelps Memorial Hospital Center&rsquos 64-acre campus in Sleepy Hollow, New York, the facility offers a convenient location for patients to receive chemotherapy and minimizes the need for travel to Manhattan for treatment. Radiation oncology services became available there in 1997.

1996 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens an outpatient cancer treatment program in June in Denville, New Jersey. The program was moved 10 years later when our new ambulatory center in Basking Ridge, New Jersey opened in 2006.

1997 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering Rockville Centre opens in November. The ambulatory facility offers chemotherapy and radiation treatment in a location that is convenient for residents of Nassau, western Suffolk, and Queens Counties in New York.

1997 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering breast surgeons prove the value of sentinel node biopsy. This procedure allows many patients with breast cancer to avoid removal of most armpit lymph nodes, thereby reducing the risk of lymphedema (arm swelling) and speeding recovery after surgery.

1998 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens an outpatient facility in Hauppauge, New York, in May, providing state-of-the-art skin cancer care in a location that is convenient for residents of Long Island, New York.

1999 &ndash The Laurance S. Rockefeller Outpatient Pavilion opens in April. Also known as Memorial Sloan Kettering 53rd Street, this location provides outpatient cancer care as well as innovative programs in women&rsquos health and cancer prevention.

1999 &ndashThe Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering is established, offering patients evidenced-based complementary interventions to optimize mainstream care before, during, and after treatment.

2001 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering awards the first Paul Marks Prize for Cancer Research. Named for Paul A. Marks, President Emeritus of Memorial Sloan Kettering, the prize is intended to encourage young investigators who have a unique opportunity to shape the future of cancer research. The prize is given every other year to investigators who are making important contributions to cancer research early in their careers.

2002 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens the Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers on March 1. The facility offers a comprehensive approach for the management of these types of cancers under one roof.

2002 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens an outpatient center in Commack, New York, in June. This is Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos first freestanding suburban outpatient treatment facility, offering a range of services including cancer diagnosis, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical consultations, and cancer screening.

2002 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière, and Renier Brentjens make an important advance in cancer immunotherapy by building the first effective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. These CAR T cells are able to survive, proliferate, and kill prostate cancer cells in the lab. This development establishes the feasibility of CAR T cell therapy.

2002 &ndash The first collaborative research center, the Center for Experimental Therapeutics, is established at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Many other such centers are added in the coming years. These groups enable close partnerships between laboratory investigators and clinicians from different disciplines. Basic and clinical science teams come together to focus on strategically important areas of cancer research.

2003 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering launches one of the country&rsquos first comprehensive programs for cancer survivors across all age groups that includes follow-up care, research, and education, and training. Designed to address long-term and late effects of cancer and treatment, our Cancer Survivorship Initiative has since become the largest program of its kind, and the model has been adopted by centers internationally.

2003 &ndash The Ralph Lauren Center for Cancer Care (RLC) opens as a partnership between Memorial Sloan Kettering, the Polo Ralph Lauren Foundation, and North General Hospital. The RLC serves the Harlem community and surrounding neighborhoods by offering cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and support services.

2004 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering refurbishes its pediatric space and opens the Claire Tow Pediatric Pavilion &mdash a custom-designed, light-filled, and brightly colored environment that includes an outpatient Pediatric Day Hospital, inpatient units, a classroom, and a recreation center.

2004 &ndash The Gerstner Sloan Kettering Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences is established. The PhD-granting institution trains the next generation of scientists by integrating Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos basic science and clinical arms to maximize students&rsquo potential to improve human health.

2005 &ndash The Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program (HOPP) is formed to bridge the gap between laboratory and clinical research. HOPP brings together researchers in many disciplines to address the challenges presented by cancer research in an era of targeted therapies.

2006 &ndash A new 72,000-square-foot surgical center opens in May. Each of the 21 state-of-the-art operating rooms are equipped for both minimally invasive surgery and traditional open surgery, and four of the rooms are specially designed to accommodate orthopedic and neurological procedures.

2006 &ndash The Mortimer B. Zuckerman Research Center opens in September. The 23-story leading-edge research facility is erected on the site of the original Kettering building built in 1964 and houses many cancer research programs in some 300,000 square feet of laboratory space.

2006 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens a suburban outpatient center in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, in September. The state-of-the-art outpatient facility offers the same outstanding cancer care as Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos New York City facilities in a location that is convenient for residents of New Jersey.

2009 &ndash The Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center and MSKCC Imaging Center open in September. This 16-story facility, located within walking distance of Memorial Hospital, offers the most-advanced, comprehensive services for breast cancer patients, all under one roof, while also expanding services for the screening and diagnosis of many other types of cancer.

2010 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos Center for Image-Guided Intervention opens in June, offering cancer patients the most advanced, minimally invasive diagnostic and treatment options in a unique multidisciplinary setting. The 40,000-square-foot facility houses an expanded Surgical Day Hospital and a new endoscopy suite.

2010 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering greatly improves its capacity to help patients with cancer regain physical function and a sense of well-being with the opening of the Sillerman Center for Rehabilitation. The state-of-the-art facility provides services tailored to the special needs of people who are undergoing or have recently completed cancer treatment.

2011 &ndash The US Food and Drug Administration approves ipilimumab (Yervoy ® ), the first immune checkpoint inhibitor, based on the work of Memorial Sloan Kettering&rsquos James Allison and Jedd Wolchok. This type of drug works by taking the brakes off immune cells, allowing them to better fight cancer.

2012 &ndash The first four students receive their PhD degrees in May from the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The mission of the school, which opened in 2006, is to advance the frontiers of scientific knowledge by educating creative and motivated students in an interactive, innovative, and collegial environment.

2012 &ndash The second phase of construction on the Mortimer B. Zuckerman Research Center is completed in October. The seven-story, 147,000-square-foot addition to the phase 1 building that was completed in 2006 contains a conference center with a 350-seat auditorium, laboratories, and space for physicians&rsquo academic offices.

2013 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering launches the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Alliance. The initiative is designed to collaboratively guide community providers toward state-of-the-art cancer care. Hartford HealthCare in Connecticut is selected as the first member of the alliance.

2014 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering adds to its network of suburban outpatient facilities with the opening of a new 114,000-square-foot site in Harrison, New York. The new location allows Memorial Sloan Kettering to offer ambulatory cancer care closer to home for patients who reside in the Hudson Valley area.

2014 &ndash Scientists use MSK-IMPACT &trade , a powerful genetic test, to sequence a patient&rsquos tumor for the first time. MSK-IMPACT detects gene mutations and other genetic changes in both rare and common cancers. The test was created by Memorial Sloan Kettering genome scientists, bioinformaticians, and molecular pathologists. It provides essential information to help doctors make treatment decisions and offers important research insights about disease progression and resistance.

2014 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering establishes the Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Center for Molecular Oncology. This ambitious initiative aims to speed the translation of novel molecular discoveries into clinical practice and to reshape the design of clinical trials.

2015 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens the Josie Robertson Surgery Center. In this first-of-its-kind freestanding facility, MSK surgeons perform outpatient procedures in an innovative setting. The center was specially designed so patients can return home either the day of or the day after a procedure.

2015 &ndash A landmark study published by Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers in the New England Journal of Medicine illustrates how MSK-IMPACT data could be used to group patients whose tumors share the same mutation &mdash regardless of where the cancer originated. It represents the first basket trial. In this type of study, treatment is based on a mutation in the tumor rather than where in the body that tumor first developed.

2016 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering adds to its network of regional outpatient facilities, opening a 120,000-square-foot site in Middletown, New Jersey. Memorial Sloan Kettering Monmouth is the first location outside Manhattan where Memorial Sloan Kettering offers surgical services, along with a comprehensive array of other programs.

2016 &ndash The American Nurses Credentialing Center grants Magnet ® recognition to Memorial Sloan Kettering. This is the highest and most prestigious distinction a healthcare organization can receive for nursing excellence and high-quality patient care.

2016 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering partners with Hackensack Meridian Health, one of New Jersey&rsquos largest and most respected healthcare systems. The collaboration enables greater access to clinical trials for residents of New Jersey, with the goal of accelerating the development of new treatments for cancer.

2016 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering becomes one of the six founding members of the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy. This network of scientists and research centers is geared toward unlocking the power of the immune system to fight cancer.

2016 &ndash The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Alliance welcomes Lehigh Valley Health Network, a multisite healthcare system in eastern Pennsylvania, as its second member.

2016 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering installs an advanced cryo-electron microscope. This exciting new research technology further strengthens the Sloan Kettering Institute&rsquos commitment to better understand the structure of key biological molecules involved in cancer.

2017 &ndash The cancer immunotherapy treatment called CAR T cell therapy is approved by the FDA for certain types of leukemia and lymphoma. Memorial Sloan Kettering physician-scientists were pioneers in devising and testing this type of &ldquoliving drug,&rdquo which employs a patient&rsquos own immune cells to find and fight cancer.

2017 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering continues extending availability to clinical trials by establishing relationships with more medical facilities, including the Miami Cancer Institute at Baptist Health South Florida, which becomes a member of the MSK Cancer Alliance. Memorial Sloan Kettering also creates a unique relationship with Norwalk Hospital in Connecticut &mdash MSK Physicians at Norwalk Hospital &mdash which has Memorial Sloan Kettering doctors providing on-site care to patients at a non-Memorial Sloan Kettering facility outside of New York State for the first time.

2017 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens a brand-new residence on 75th Street for bone marrow transplant patients and their caregivers. The fully furnished apartments are seven blocks from Memorial Hospital, making them convenient for people who need to see their doctors frequently for follow-up monitoring and care.

2018 &ndash The opening of MSK Bergen, in Montvale, New Jersey, with 110,000 square feet of clinical space, brings outstanding cancer care to people living in northern New Jersey and southern New York. A large number of Memorial Sloan Kettering patients call this region home.

2018 &ndash At Memorial Hospital, the Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service opens a new floor where patients can get the most-innovative stem cell transplants as well as CAR T cell therapy.

2018 &ndash Former SKI immunologist James Allison wins a Nobel prize for his work on immune checkpoint inhibitors. Dr. Allison was a member of the Sloan Kettering Institute from 2004 to 2012.

2019 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens MSK Nassau, a 114,000-square-foot outpatient facility in Uniondale, New York, on Long Island. The facility, which offers services for almost every aspect of cancer care, allows for more convenient treatment for people from Nassau County and eastern Queens.

2019 &ndash The Ralph Lauren Center for Cancer Care officially becomes part of Memorial Sloan Kettering. Opened in 2003, the RLC is a model for quality and equity in healthcare for residents of Harlem and surrounding neighborhoods.

2019 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering announces MSK Kids, the new name of the pediatric program. The sole focus of MSK Kids is caring for children, teenagers, and young adults with cancer and related diseases.

2019 &ndash Along with two other medical institutions, Memorial Sloan Kettering opens the New York Proton Center (NYPC) in Manhattan. Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy designed to kill cancer cells. Memorial Sloan Kettering doctors began offering proton therapy in 2013 at a facility in Somerset, New Jersey. The NYPC is the first location to provide this sophisticated treatment in New York City.

2020 &ndash Memorial Sloan Kettering opens the David H. Koch Center for Cancer Care, a 750,000-square-foot, 23-story outpatient cancer center on East 74th Street and FDR Drive in Manhattan. The new center provides the most-advanced cancer treatments in a dynamic space for the rapidly increasing number of people who have outpatient care.


Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline - HISTORY

From November 12-19 hundreds of individuals and organizations around the country participated in Transgender Awareness Week to help raise the visibility of transgender and gender non-conforming people, and address the issues these communities face. The final day of Transgender Awareness Week is the Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDOR), an annual observance on November 20 that honors the memory of those whose lives were lost in acts of anti-transgender violence. TDOR was started by transgender advocate Gwendolyn Ann Smith as a vigil to honor the memory of Rita Hester, a transgender woman who was killed in 1998. Take a look back now at the history of transgender visibility with this timeline of notable events compiled by GLAAD.

"The Transgender Day of Remembrance seeks to highlight the losses we face due to anti-transgender bigotry and violence. I am no stranger to the need to fight for our rights, and the right to simply exist is first and foremost," said Transgender Day of Remembrance founder Gwendolyn Ann Smith. "With so many seeking to erase transgender people -- sometimes in the most brutal ways possible -- it is vitally important that those we lose are remembered, and that we continue to fight for justice."


1924: First lady diplomat will get to work

Revolutionary Marxist Alexandra Kollontai joined the brand new Russian authorities shaped after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution because the People’s Commissar of Social Welfare. In that capability, she based a Women’s Department that fought to enhance the lives of girls in the Soviet Union. After a couple of years, she was requested to sort out diplomatic work, and in 1924, Kollontai was promoted to second-in-command of the Soviet Union’s Norwegian embassy, which formally added her to the diplomatic corps. She continued working in Sweden, Finland, and Mexico till her retirement in the Forties.


1925: Nellie Tayloe Ross turns into the primary lady governor in the U.S.

One month after her husband, Gov. William B. Ross, died of appendicitis, Nellie Tayloe Ross was elected to fill his seat. Through her victory, Wyoming, the primary state to offer girls the best to vote, turned the primary to elect a lady to a state’s highest workplace. Ross was inaugurated in January 1925, however misplaced reelection in 1926. She had an extended profession in politics after her time period, and stays the one lady governor in Wyoming’s historical past.


1916 | The Congressional Union and the Woman's Party merge into the National Woman's Party (NWP)

Alice Paul and the members of her NWP begin to use radical tactics borrowed from the suffrage movement in England, picketing the White House and practicing other forms of civil disobedience.

Illustration of Alice Paul being force-fed in jail

Watch the video: Zeitleiste Geschichte 1792-1991


Comments:

  1. Wildon

    Absolutely with you it agree. In it something is also idea good, agree with you.

  2. Martinez

    A very good thing

  3. Ascott

    Bravo, your thought is great

  4. Abdul-Wadud

    I suggest you go to the site, which has a lot of information on this issue.

  5. Chad

    It does not make sense.



Write a message